John Howard

JOHN HOWARD, 1st duke of Norfolk (c. 1430-1485), was the son of Sir Robert Howard by his wife Margaret, daughter of Thomas Mowbray, the first duke of that family. In 1455 John Howard was sent to parliament as member for Norfolk, although he " hadde no lyvelode in the shire "; in 1461 he was knighted; and in 1470, although he appears to have been a consistent Yorkist, he was created a baron by Henry VI. He was treasurer of the royal household from 1467 to 1474, and went to France with Edward IV. in 1475. After Edward's death, however, he supported Richard III., who created him duke of Norfolk and made him earl marshal of England in June 1483. He was killed at Bosworth whilst fighting for this king on the 22nd of August 1485, and the title thus suffered attainder. He is frequently mentioned in the Paston Letters.

Howard line.

His son, THOMAS HOWARD, afterwards 2nd duke of Norfolk (1443-1524), shared his father's fortunes; he fought at Barnet for Edward IV. and was made steward of the royal household and created earl of Surrey in 1483. Taken prisoner at Bosworth he was attainted and remained in captivity until January 1489, when he was released and restored to his earldom but not to the dukedom of Norfolk. He was then entrusted with the maintenance of order in Yorkshire and with the defence of the Scottish borders; he was made lord treasurer and a privy councillor in 1501, and he helped to arrange the marriage between Margaret, the daughter of Henry VII., and James IV. of Scotland. Henry VIII., too, employed him on public business, but the earl grew jealous of Wolsey, and for a short time he absented himself from court. He commanded the army which defeated the Scots at Flodden in September 1513, and was created duke of Norfolk in February of the following year, with precedency as of the creation of 1483. In his later years Norfolk worked more harmoniously with Wolsey. He was guardian of England during Henry's absence in France in 1520, and he acted as lord high steward at the trial of his friend Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham, in 1521. Among his sons were William, 1st Lord Howard of Effingham, and Sir Edward Howard (c. 1477- I S I 3)> lord high admiral, who defeated the French fleet off Brest in August 1512, and lost his life during another engagement in April 1513.

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

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