ZIRKEL, FERDINAND (1838- ), German geologist and petrographer, was born at Bonn on the 20th of May 1838. He was educated in his native town, and graduated Ph.D. at the university in 1861. In early years he was engaged in teaching geology and mineralogy in Vienna. He became professor of geology in 1863 in the university of Lemberg, in 1868 at Kiel, and in 1870 professor of mineralogy and geology in the university of Leipzig.
His numerous papers and essays include Geologiscne Skizze von der Westkiiste Schotuands (1871); Die Struktur der Variolite (1875); Microscopical Petrography (in Report of U.S. Geol. Exploration of 4Oth Par., vol. vi., 1876); Limurit aus der Vallee de Lesponne (1879); Vber den Zirkon (1880). His separate works incjude Lehrbuch der Petrographie (1866; 2nd ed. 1893, 1894); Die mikroskopische Beschaffenhett der Mineralien und Gesteine (1873).
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)