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VENER [Wener or Viiner; often written, with the addition of the definite article, Vcnern], the largest lake in" Sweden and the third largest in Europe. It has an area of 2149 S Q- m -; a maximum length of 87 m.; an extreme breadth of 44 m.; a maximum depth of 292 ft.; and an altitude above sea-level of 144 ft., though the surface sometimes rises as much as 10 ft. or more, for the lake is the recipient of the waters of numerous streams, the largest being the Klar, which drains the forests of Vermland and Kopparberg to the north. It is drained by the Gota river southward to the Cattegat. It is divided into two basins by two peninsulas and a group of islands, the western half being known as Lake Dalbo. The northern shores are high, rocky and in part wooded, the southern open and low, though isolated hills occur, such as the Kinnekulle (988 ft.), an abrupt hill exhibiting a remarkable series of geological strata. Several islands fringe this shore; of these Leek 6 has a fine medieval castle. This lake and Lake Vetter contain degenerate species of marine fauna, left after the retreat of the sea in which both were formerly included.

By means of the Dalsland Canal from Kppmannabro, midway on the west shore of Dalbo, the lake, which is the scene of a busy traffic in timber, iron and agricultural produce, has communication with Fredrikshald in Norway; and it is traversed from Venersborg on the south to Siotorp on the east by the Gota (g.v.) Canal route. The principal lake-ports are on the north Karlstad (g.n.) and Kristmehamn, with iron-works and tobacco factory; on the east Mariestad, chief town of the district of Skaraborg, taking its name from the queen of Charles IX. (1599-161 i);-on the south Liclkoping, near the Kinnekulle, and Venersborg at the outflow of the Gota, with its old bridge and canal of the 17th century, a museum, and iron foundries, tanneries and match and paper factories.

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

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