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United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Ireland

UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, 1 the official title, since the 1st of January 1801, of the political unity composed of England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland. " Great Britain " was employed as a formal flesignation from the time of the union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland in 1707. Although the name (which apparently had its origin in Britannia Major, the name given to the island to distinguish it from Britannia Minor or Brittany) had, in earlier times, been often used both by English and by foreign writers, especially for rhetorical and poetical purposes, it was not till after the accession of James I. that it became a recognized part of the royal style. Its adoption was due to the king himself, who was anxious to give expression to the fact that he was sovereign of the undivided island, and not only of England or Scotland. As early as 1559 the Scottish congregation had formally proposed 'See also BRITAIN; BRITISH EMPIRE; ENGLAND; Ireland; SCOTLAND; WALES; etc.

Year.

Total Revenue.

Total Expenditure.

Proportion of Revenue per head.

s. d.

1861 70,283,674 72,792,059 2 8 10 1871 69,945,220 69,548,539 1zz 881 81,872,354 80,938,990 2 7 I 1891 89,489,112 87,732,855 1zz 901 130,384,684 183,592,264 3 2 10 1902 142,997,999 195,522,213 3 12 II 1903 151,551,698 184,483,708 3 ii 6 1904 141,545,597 146,961,136 1zz 905 143,370,404 141,956,497 1zz 906 143,977,575 140,511,955 3 5 ii 1907 156,537,690 151,812,094 1zz 908 151,578,295 152,292,395 1zz 909 131,696,456 157,944,611 2 18 5 2 See PEERAGE. " See REPRESENTATION and PARLIAMENT.

In separate articles throughout this Encyclopaedia the main subjects of interest in connexion with British institutions are fully dealt with; and it is only necessary here to give such details as are needed to supplement those given under the subjectheading. See AGRICULTURE ; N AV Y (also SHIP and Snip-B UILDING) ; EDUCATION; ENGLISH FINANCE; ENGLISH HISTORY; CIVIL SER- VICE; NATIONAL DEBT; POLICE; POOR LAW; etc. A separate section, however, is devoted to the army, the constitution of which in 1910 is described; the history is given under ARMY.

National Debt (q.v.). The table on the preceding page shows the position of the national debt at quinquennial intervals during 1891-1910.

Area and Population. The United Kingdom has an area of 120,651 sq. m., and at the census of 1891 had a population of 37,732,922 and in 1901 of 41,458,721. If the islands in British seas are included, the area is increased to 120,953 sq. m., and the population to 41,609,091. The main divisions are as follows:

Area sq. m.

Population.

1891.

1901.

England and Wales . Scotland 58,324 29,796 32,531 302 29,002,525 4,025,647 4,704,750 147,842 32,527,843 4,472,103 4.458,775 150,370 Ireland Islands in the British seas .

Vital Slatistks.The following table institutes a comparison between the birth-rates per thousand of the population in the United Kingdom and certain other countries, at intervals (so far as possible) of five years, adding the figures for other years in specific years when there was a marked fluctuation:

The number of marriages (a) and the proportion of persons married per thousand of the population (b) are thus shown:

Year.

England and Wales.

Scotland.

Ireland.

United Kingdom.

1896 1901 1906 1909 (a) (b) 242,764 15-7 259,400 15-9 269,734 15-6 260,259 J 4'6 (a) (b) 30,270 14-2 31,387 14-0 33,123 14-0 30,092 12-3 (a) (b)

23.055 10-2 22,564 IO-2 22,557 10-3 22,769 10-4 (a) (b) 296,089 15-0 313.351 I5-I 325,414 14-9 313,120 13-9 Emigration. The following table shows the number of passengers, distinguishing English and Welsh, Scottish and Irish, who left the United Kingdom for extra-European countries in 1895, 1900 and 1905, and the total for 1909, and in certain other years in which the numbers show marked fluctuations:

Year.

English and Welsh.

Scottish.

Irish.

Total.

1895 112,538 18,294 54.349 185,181 1898 90,679 15.570 34.395 140,644 1900 102,448 20,472 45.9 5 168,825 1904 175.733 37,445 58,285 271-435 I9 5 170,408 4i,5io 50,159 262,077 1906 219.765 53.162 52,210 325-137 In 1909 the total number to British dominions was 163,594 and the total number to other extra-European countries was 125,167.

Occupations. The following table shows the occupations of the people (excluding children under ten years of age) as 1zz 881.

1886.

1891.

1896.

1901.

1905, 1906.

Russia in Europe * Hungary Austria Germany 47-8 (1882, 50-4) 42-9 37-5 (1882, 38-9) 37' 46-5 45-6 38-1 37' 48-8 42-3 38-3 37'0 49-7 40-5 38-0 36-3 47-9 3 I1 36-6 35'7 36-0 33-7 33-o Japan 25-6 27-3 (1889, 30-2)

26-7 30-0 32-7 30-6 Holland Denmark Switzerland 35-o 32-2 29-8 34-6 32-4 27-8 33'7 31-0 (1892,29-6)

28-2 32-7 30-5 28-1 32-3 29-7 29-1 30-4 28-5 27-4 UNITED KINGDOM 32-5 31-5 (1890,29-2)

30-4 29-0 28-0 26-8 England 33-9 32-8 (1890, 30-2)

31-4 29-6 28-5 27-1 Scotland 33-7 32-9 (1890, 30-4)

31-2 (1894,29-9)

30-4 29-5 27-9 Ireland 24-5 23-2 (1890, 22-3)

23-1 (1892,22-5)

23-7 22-7 23-6 Norway 30-6 31-2 30-9 30-2 29-6 26-5 Sweden ........ Belgium France ........

29-1 31-8 24-9 29-8 29-9 23-9 28-3 30-0 22-6 27-2 29-0 22-5 27-0 29-4 22-O 25-7 ; 25-7 20-6 The number of births in the United Kingdom in 1909 was 1,146,118, giving a rate per thousand of 25-5.

* Not including Finjand.

The death-rate is similarly treated :

Denmark Norway Sweden Holland . . . UNITED KINGDOM.

1881.

1886.

I89I.

1896.

1901.

1905, 1906.

18-3 17-0 17-7 21-5 18-7 18-1 16-2 16-6 21-8 19-2 2O-O 17-5 16-8 20-7 2O-0 15-7 I5-I 15-6 17-2 16-9 15-8 14-9 16-1 17-2 17-1 13-5 13-7 14-4 14-8 15-6 England . Scotland . Ireland .

18-9 19-3 17-5 19-5 18-9 17-8 2O-2 20-7 18-4 17-1 16-6 16-7 16-9 17-9 17-8 15-4 1 6-0 17-0 Belgium Switzerland Germany France .... Japan .... Hungary Austria Russia in Europe*.

21 2 22-4 25-5 22-0 18-7 34-4 30-5 33-2 21-3 20-7 26-2 22-5 24-4 31-7 29-5 31-2 21-2 20-6 23-4 22-9 21-0 33-1 28-1 34-6 17-5 17-8 20-8 2O-O 21-4 28-9 26- T, 32-8 17-2 18-0 20-7 20- 1 20-4 25-4 24-0 32-1 16-4 17-9 19-8 19-9 22-O 24-8 25-0 * Not including Finland.

The deaths in the United Kingdom in 1909 numbered 667,765, the rate per thousand being 14-8.

Lllg J. 11HCII"J' distinguished in five great orders, according .to the census of 1901:

England and Wales.

Scotland.

Ireland.

Professional Domestic Commercial Agricultural Industrial .

804,427 1,994,197 1,858,454 1,152,495 7,534,994 101,061 201,230 245,715 237,311 1,197,495 131,035 219,418 97,889 876,062 639.413 Agriculture. The following table illustrates broadly the difference in the position of agriculture in Great Britain and in Ireland:

Percentage to total area of area Great Britain.

Ireland.

1890.

1909.

1890.

1909.

57-7 14-1 5-8 8-5 28-2 56-6 12-4 5-4 7-9 30-2 73-1 7-3 5-8 5-9 53-4 70-3 6-1 5-0 II-2 43-1 Under grain crops .... Under green crops .... Under grasses and other crops . In permanent pasture 600 UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND Ireland Minerals and Mining. The mineral production of the Unitet Kingdom reached a total value in 1890 of 100,802,657 and in 1909 of 119,394,486, with a maximum during that period o 160,605,154 in 1900 and a minimum of 73,024,066 in 1893 These figures include pig-iron produced from foreign ores About 73 % represents the value of the coal output. The figures for the more important minerals are as follows:

between 1890 and 1910 was 267,830,962 tons in 1907, and th< minimum 164,325,795 in 1893. The maximum estimated value however, was 121,652,596 for the 225,181,300 tons raised ii 1900; the value in 1907 being 120,527,378. In the chief coal-producing counties of England and Wale the quantity raised in 1900 and in 1909 will be found in the table a the foot of preceding column. Thus it appears that of the coal raised in England the county o Durham contributes about 22%, Yorkshire 17%, Lancashin 16%, Stafford and Derbyshire each about 9%, and Northumber land 7%; while of the coal raised in Wales 85% is contributed b> the county of Glamorgan ; and that the coal production of Englanc and Wales together constitutes, in quantity and value, 85 % of th whole production of the United Kingdom. The export of coal greatly increased on the whole during the perioc 1890-1909. The following table shows this; the figures for 1891 are given as the lowest during the period. The tonnage of coke and patent fuel is included in the totals :

Description of Minerals. 1900. 1909. Value, 1909.

Coal. . . Iron ore .

Tor . . . 225,181 T/1.O2E is. Tons. ,300 263,774,312 106,274,900 ,208 14,979,979 3-689,777 ,694 14,067,810 1,718,056 ,874 4,600,084 1,339,106 ,859 402,184 1,007,013 ,477 11,811,122 1,226,967 ,301 6,283,297 1,235,046 ,221 2,967,057 815,937 ,800 8,289 617,376 ,347 1,822,744 548,896 Clay and shale . . . 14,040 Sandstone .... 5,oic Slate 58; Limestone (not chalk) . 1 1 ,90= Igneous rocks . . 4,6^ Tin ore (dressed) . . 6 Salt 1,861 Year. Tons. Year. Tons.

1890 30,442,839 i 1900 46,098,228 1893 29,031,955 1 1905 49,359,272 1895 33, I i,452 1909 65,694,267 Gold ore, manganese ore and uranium ore are produced in small quantities, and the list of minerals worked in the United Kingdom also includes chalk, lead, alum, phosphate of lime, chert and flint, gravel and sand, zinc ore, gypsum, arsenic, copper, barytes, wolfram and strontium sulphate. Metals were obtained from the ores as follows:

The chief receiving countries are, in order, Germany, France, Italy, Sweden, Spain, Russian Empire, Denmark, Egypt, Holland, Argentina, Norway and Brazil.

The annual output of iron ore in the United Kingdom has on the whole decreased since 1882. In that year it reached a maximum of 18,031,957 tons; it then fell off to 13,098,341 tons in 1887, rose in the two years follow- '"'"' ing to nearly 15,000,000, fell to little over 11,000,000 in 1892- 1893, rose fairly steadily to 14,461,330 in 1899, stood in 1900 at 14,028,208 tons of a value of 4,224,400, and then showed a further fall and rise, until in 1905 the tonnage was 14,590,703, and the value 3,482,184. The iron ore raised in the various countries, and in the most productive counties, is here shown :

Description o Metal.

1900.

1909.

Quantity.

Quantity.

Value (average market price).

Iron . Tin ... Lead . . . Zinc . Copper gold . . . Silver . 4,666,942 tons 4-268 24-364 - 9,066 765 14,004 oz. 190,850 4,802,163 tons 5,199 22,463 3,8:8 435 1,210- oz. 142,146 ,, 15,559,253 695,546 298,945 87,146 27,162 4,400 14,030 1900. 1909.

The total number of persons employed in and about all the mines of the United Kingdom in 1901 was 839,178, and in 1909 1,126,372. The workers were thus distributed between the three kingdoms and the principality in 1905:

Tons. To England T 072 118 1/1 ! ns. '6,658 [6,228 2,367 4,896 17,363 '5,659 >2,565 4,589 8,043 7,276 18,002 Cumberland 1 1,103,430 i,2t Lancashire 1 . 630 361 31 Leicester 7eo 708 si Lincoln .... i 924 898 2 o' Northampton . . . 1,622,5-19 2*8:

Coal Mines, etc.

Metalliferous Mines (a).

Quarries (b).

otanord * i 084 707 or Y rk 5,550,677 6,2; Wales 7,418 England . Wales . . Scotland Ireland .

606,206 137,124 1 14,294 749 I9,56l 7,333 974 733 60,725 17.277 12,187 4464 Scotland 2 . SAO oil 6c Ireland 99 641 ( The number of furnaces in blast (fractions showing the pi of the year furnaces were in blast) was: in England 298^ 19^; Scotland 85 ,"2, total 403^. The total number of urnaces in 1900 was: in England 456, Wales 42, Scotl; :otal 604; so that 33% of the number stood unused, urnaces in blast numbered: England 244^- Wales 13^, ?7A: total 345^; and those existing: in England 412, V Scotland 101 ; total 544; and the percentage unused was t In 1888 the imports of iron ore amounted to 3,562,071 1898 to 5,468,396 tons, in 1899 to 7,054,578 tons, in 1900 to t tons, in 1901 to 5,548,888 tons and in 1909 to 6,361,571 tons, oportion i, Wales existing md 106; In 1905 Scotland Vales 31, hus 36. tons, in ,297,953 of which iron ob,976,990 in 1905 for the 87). ingdom tput of Lead.

ish ore duction num of ductive ined in ns.

fdom. nes also The total figures given above include (a) 550 and (b) 1 66 workers in the Isle of Man ; and the figures quoted for production include that of the isle. The production of coal in Great Britain, though marked by Coa] fluctuation, has, on the whole, largely increased, and in 1901 the output was 42% greater than that of 1 88 1. The maximum quantity extracted in any one year 1zz 900.

1909.

he bulk was imported from Spain. The amount of pigained found its minimum, during the period 1890-1910, of 6 ons in 1893, and its maximum of 10,183,860 in 1906, and lie quantity produced from foreign ores (4,847,899 tons) first time exceeded that produced from British ores (4,760,1 The quantity of lead ore produced within the United K las decreased. It is now less than one-half of the on about 1877, and the value has decreased more than proportionately. In the period 1890-1908 the maximum annual production of metallic lead from Brit wa 33,590 tons in 1890, valued at 449,826 ; the pro fluctuated somewhat, but generally fell, to the minir 7,704 tons in 1902 (value 198,875). The most pro ounties are Flint, Durham and Derby; the ore obta he Isle of Man is increased in value by the silver it contai 1 These counties supply the richest ore in the United Kin] 2 In these cases the greater proportion of ore is from mi producing coal.

England. Cumberland Derby Durham Gloucester .

Tons. 2,022,327 15,243,031 34,800,719 1,578,386 24,842,208 2,106,343 9,818,829 11,514,521 8,626,177 Tons. 2,309,370 16,869,347 41,240,612 1,486,526 23,705,387 2,661,606 13,204,357 14,013,135 11,106,702 1,140,818 13,517,101 4,447,978 35,896,623 1,950,429 2,556,612 34,461,631 Lancashire Leicester Monmouth Northumberland Nottingham Somerset Stafford 1zz 4,222,743 2.957,490 28,247,249 1,333,880 2,447,092 27,686,758 Warwick York . .

Wales. Carmarthen Denbigh Glamorgan UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND Ireland 60 1 The annual output of tin ore, which in 1878 amounted to 15,045 tons, valued at 53,737, fell to 12,898 tons in 1881, though the value in that year rose to 697,444.

During the years 1882-1892 the average output was over 14,000 tons, and its average value about 770,000, but in 1893 a decline began in the output (not however accompanied closely by a decline in the value), slightly relieved about 1905.

Year.

Tin Ore.

Value.

1893 1900 1905 1909 Tons.

13,689 6,800 7,201 5,193 637,053 523-604 574,183 617,376 Tin ore is obtained almost exclusively in Cornwall. Like others of the less important mining industries, copper mining in the United Kingdom has declined. In 1881 the output of ore amounted to 52,556 tons, in 1891 to Conner * 9158 tons, in 1893 to 5576 tons, in 1905 to 7153 tons, valued at 32,696 and yielding 716 tons of metal by smelting. The total tonnage of ore included 5757 tons from England (chiefly from Cornwall) and 1146 from Ireland (Wicklow, etc.). Copper precipitate is taken from water pumped up from old copper mines on Parys Mountain in Anglesey.

Zinc ore is obtained chiefly from mines in Cumberland, Wales and the Isle of Man. In 1881 the output reached 35,527 tons, valued at 110,043; in 1891 the output was only 22,216 tons, but its value was 113,445. In 1897 the quantity was 19,278 tons, and the value 69,134; but in 1898 the price had risen so that the output of 23,552 tons was worth 117,784. In 1900 the output of 24,675 tons was worth 97,606; and in 1905 that of 23,909 tons was worth 139,806.

During the period 1890-1905 gold mines were worked continuously in Merionethshire. Notices of the discovery of gold elsewhere (as in the Forest of Dean, Argyllshire and Ireland) have appeared from time to time. The principal fluctuations in production were as follows:

Year.

Ore.

Gold.

Value.

Tons.

1890 1zz 06 1zz 891 14,117 4,008 13,700 1893 4,489 2,309 8,691 1895 13,266 6,600 18,520 1898 1zz 95 1,229 1900 20,802 14,004 52,147 1902 29,953 4,181 14,570 1904 23,203 19,655 73,925 1905 I5,98i 5,797 21,222 1908 1zz ,3" It should be noted also that from imported cupreous iron pyrites, copper, gold and silver are extracted at some fifteen metal extraction works in Great Britain. From 386,858 tons of burnt ore in 1900 there were obtained 13,925 tons of copper, 1777 oz. of gold and 309,486 oz. of silver; and in 1905 the figures were: ore, 402,863 tons; copper, 14,502 tons; gold, 1850 oz.; silver, 322,291 oz.

Textile Industries. The most important of the textile industries of Great Britain is cotton manufacture. The quantities of raw cotton imported, exported and retained for consumption for various years during the period 1890-1910 were as follows:

Cotton.

Year.

Imported.

Exported.

Retained.

1890 1893 1895 1898 1900 1905 1907 1909 1,793,495,200 1,416,780,064 1,757,042,672 2,128,548,352 1,760,206,672 2,203,595,520 2,386,901,104 2,188,761,456 ft 214,641,840 224,621,488 203,284,592 203,072,464 215,747,168 283,177,888 330,352,064 268,633,456 ,578,853,360 ,192,158,576 ,553,758,080 ,925,475,888 ,544,459,504 ,920,417,632 2,056,549,040 1,920,128,000 During the same period the minimum and maximum amount of raw cotton (in ft) imported into the United Kingdom from the principal countries whence it is exported was as follows: United States of America (1893), 1,055,855,360; (1898), 1,805,353,424; Egypt (1890), 181,266,176; (1907), 423,052,448; British possessions in the East Indies (1898), 27,349,728; (1890), 238,746,704; (1909), 75,621,168; Brazil (1809), 5,464,592; (1906), 54,362,000; Peru (1891), 6,175,344; (1909), 24,413,648. In 1905 there were imported 7,94 I ,920 ft from Chile (only 195,328 in 1909); 6,033,104 ft from Canada (this also fluctuates greatly; 1,801,072 in 1909); 1,241,408 ft from British West Africa (4,985,232 in 1909); 1,126,720 ft from the British West Indies and Guiana (3,022,208 in 1908).

According to the census returns of 1901 there were 546,065 persons employed in cotton factories, 199,920 male and 346,145 female. Of the total number of workpeople, 529, 131 were employed in England and Wales, 14,805 in Scotland and 212 in Ireland. In 1907 the total had risen to 576,820 (217,742 males and 359,078 females).

The extent of the woollen and worsted manufactures of the United Kingdom is indicated by the following table showing the imports and exports of wool and the quantity retained for use in various years (1890-1905):

Wool.

Year.

Imports.

Exports of imported Wool.

Retained.

1890 1895 1898 1900 1905 1907 1909 Ib 633,028,131 775,379,063 699,555,048 558,950,528 620,350,885 764,286,625 808,710,087 340,712,303 404,935,226 283,317,748 196,207,261 277,864,215 313,519,282 390,695,182 ft 292,315,828 370,443,837 416,237,300 362,743/267 342,486,670 450,767,343 418,014,905 During the same period the minimum and maximum amount of wool (in ft) imported into the United Kingdom was as follows: Australia (1904), 220,483,961; (1895), 417,163,078; New Zealand (1890), 95,632,598; (1909), 176,457,150; British possessions in South Africa (1900), 32,219,369; (1909), 115,896,598; South America (1890), 11,173,692; (1908), 78,938,157; British possessions in the East Indies (1901), 24,069,571; (1909), 56,238,633; France (1890), io, 8 73,7 8 8; (1902), 27,770,790; Turkish Empire (1908), 5,705,671; (1897), 25,727,462.

In the woollen and worsted industries 239,954 persons were employed according to the census of 1901 , of whom 99,425 were males and 140,529 females. Of the total number 209,700 were employed in England and Wales, 24,906 in Scotland and 5348 in Ireland.

The numbers of persons employed in the other principal textile industries in 1901 was as follows:

England and Wales.

Scotland.

Ireland.

United Kingdom.

Total.

Males.

Females.

Flax . . Hemp, jute, etc. . . Silk . . Hosiery 4-493 2,750 34,847 48,374 23,570 39,200 2,424 n,957 71,464 639 209 611 29,226 11,618 1 1 ,058 15,067 70,301 30,971 26,422 45,875 99,527 42,589 37,480 60,942 Commerce. British commerce received an enormous development after the first quarter of the 19th century. In 1826 the aggregate value of the imports into and exports from the United Kingdom amounted to no more than 88,758,678; while the total rose to 110,559,538 in 1836 and to 205,625,831 in 1846. In 1856 the aggregate of imports and exports had risen to 311,764,507, in 1866 to 534,195,956 and in 1876 to 631,931,305. Thus the commercial transactions of the United Kingdom with foreign states and British colonies increased more than sevenfold in the course of fifty years.

An important fact in connexion with the foreign commerce of the United Kingdom is that there has been a steady increase in imports, but there has been no corresponding steady increase in exports of British produce and manufactures. Many industries, which formerly were mainly in British hands, have been developed on the continent of Europe, in America, and to some extent in the East. The movement began in 1872. Up to that time the exports of British home produce had kept on increasing with the imports, although at a lesser rate, and far inferior in aggregate value; but a change took place in the latter year. While the imports continued their upward course, gradually rising from 354,693,624 in 1872 to 375,154,703 in 1876, the exports of British produce fell from 256,257,347 in 1872 to 200,639,204 in 1876. The decline in exports, regular and steady throughout the period, and with a tendency to become more pronounced every year, affected all the principal articles of British 602 UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND Ireland Country.

1890.

1895- 1900.

1905- 1909.

I. BRITISH POSSESSIONS India and Ceylon Straits SettlementsjMalaysia and Hong Kong Africa Canada and Newfoundland .

West Indies, Bermudas. Honduras and Guiana .

Australia . . . . New Zealand Other ) Imports ( Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports i Imports 1 Exports i Imports 1 Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports [Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports 37,856,598 38,254,769 6,412,865 5,766,059 11,290,022 10,744,904 12,444,489 8,272,743 2,992,472 4,262,669 20,992,185 21,750,705 8,347,430 3,705,428 1,720,583 3,826,012 44,828,148 24,710,803 26,073,331 30,516,281 17,383,776 13,594.966 25,900,924 16,445,992 7,753-389 2,928,006 1,728,337 1,694,318 4,447,159 1,350,497 1,962,798 1,235,126 3,093,918 8,523,209 12,508,533 5,702,804 2,942,194 2,612,638 23,750,868 8,846,054 8,368,851 l 7,340,868 l 1,024,993 4,187,373 4,830,850 2 6,763,221 2 1,223,037 1.675.054 8,368,851 3.459.991 97,283,349 46,340,012 1,863,284 3,050,051 4,350,675 7,795,073 4,129,802 8,530,427 3,473,348 3,365,824 376,969 516,846 2,345,843 3,262,462 2,080,466 5,674,325 3,206,713 6,605,220 31,076,761 27,519,909 5,404,887 4,077,436 12,522,366 13,325,089 13,400,570 6,594,903 2,831,343 3,230,189 24-954,779 15,867,979 8,383,058 3-443,688 1,952,431 3,095,184 47,470,583 20,324,998 26,992,559 32,736,651 17,545,169 11,934-653 28,419,944 11,272,258 9,799,328 3,135,122 3,831,727 2,532,050 8,784,256 4,036,729 1,221,783 2,149,552 2,118,505 944,034 1,241,406 860,193 3,132,720 6,211,337 11,314,518 4,052,806 2,491,926 1,865,973 24,736,919 10,686,333 5,630,240 5,566,187 1,143,382 4,772,829 3,343,865 2 5,363,536 2 874,313 1,988,479 9,524,507 3,4H,556 86,548,860 44,067,703 1,443,345 3,035,097 3,614,155 7,643,739 9,084,497 5,480,848 3,436,142 3,454,332 344.895 720,350 1,683,319 3,052,023 2,437,294 4,489,592 3-447.034 3-901,551 i 32,861,217 32,885,147 8,092,057 6,162,526 9,703,086 16,725,092 22,240,325 9,659,138 2,483,648 2,954,477 23,800,820 23,545,565 11,615,881 5,899,292 2,287,537 4,252,072 53,618,656 25,877453 31,181,667 38,542,790 23,502,603 14,846,307 31,381,023 14,931,090 13,187,757 4,724,121 5,756,018 3,910,982 10,635,060 6,495,223 1,375,245 3-157,716 1,396,639 616,287 2,227,212 1,104,196 3,417,790 9,444,498 15,882,346 6,333,857 3,241,367 2,529,305 21,983,952 16,360,475 5.657,627 5.372,956 1,540,526 9.933,925 2,359,821 5,634,313 287,454 2,881,601 12,585,578 6,159,468 138,789,261 37-343,955 1,144,590 3,149,652 5,946,547 6,156,600 13,080,466 7,438,238 4,828,371 3-535-736 373,344 684,440 2,503,823 4,686,727 2,355,8oi 4,088,731 3,190,888 6,370,943 i 40,540,341 45-796,432 7,222,215 7,162,908 14-755,353 21,338,292 26,204,205 14,267,967 2,717,318 3,324,665 26,968,977 19,476,463 13,391,222 6,994,806 3,731,132 4,351,367 53,072,900 23,232,663 35,799.758 42,742,300 27,751,288 14,818,923 35,481,059 14,516,887 15,606,991 4,609,671 5,954,870 3,712,532 9,827,993 6,016,332 i ,488,604 2,603,223 1,689,513 1,305,658 1,328,234 1,251,642 3,324.595 9,787,306 13,858,631 4,841,774 2,929,634 2,826,257 33,366,234 14,884,050 5,491,443 6,9 7 9,i47 1,860,313 9,796,900 2,340,346 3 13,298,828 > 2,129,479 3,558,562 14,976,188 8,069,668 115,573,051 47,282,088 2,138,574 3,022,074 8,109,208 6,916,617 25,034,325 13,383,835 6,068,031 4,782,382 611,096 699,556 2,901,281 6,063,114 3,897,595 5,129,351 6,289,947 8,352,264 40,995,633 46,617,909 8,948,582 7,455,726 13,130.724 20,181,408 27,674,340 18,750,970 2,969,772 3,777,244 32,655,709 27,207,430 17,730,556 8,081,422 2,800,939 4,246,362 50,690,785 31,515,320 40,115,450 47,168,852 29,217,560 19,284,791 37,371,702 16,303,884 19,427,483 5,705,415 6,574,319 3,835.436 9.245,303 7,114,071 i ,208,499 4,333,269 3,395,474 1,749,996 1,613,174 1,513,744 3-634,073 13,274,764 13,362,959 5,352,017 2,912,994 2,777,201 36,897,746 18,325,844 5,085,435 7,789,432 4,232,716 8,618,821 3,725,502 8.558,275 2,436,518 3,768,264 19,872,288 8,142,325 118,269,777 59,254,166 2,595,356 3,179,577 11,271,890 8,809,226 32,528,446 19,202,496 6,607,415 5,054,144 1,043,280 1,214,041 4,538,518 7,783,508 5,657,201 6,137,748 4,260,790 7,440,065 II. FOREIGN COUNTRIES France Germany Belgium 'Holland Denmark, Faeroe, Iceland, Greenland Norway Sweden Austria-Hungary Rumania Greece ....

Italy Spain Portugal ....

Russian Empire .... Turkey ....

Japan ....

China Netherlands India . Egypt .... ! U.S.A. .

1 Mexico andCentral American i States ; Brazil ...

Argentina Chile -.' Other countries in Asia . . ' Africa .

' 1 South America ....

Other countries ....

Total for British possessions \ I m P orts ( Exports 100,279,852 94,522,469 100,405,592 76,138,896 113-074-557 102,083,109 134.530,683 122,712,920 146,908,244 136,318,471 Total for foreign countries 5 Imports ' ( Exports 324,530,783 233,729,649 321,038,151 209,693,511 413-434-242 252,290,645 437,151,191 284,883,607 477,796,713 333,206,695 Grand total . \ Imports ' ( Exports 420,691,997 328,252,118 416,689,658 285,832,407 523.075-163 354-373,754 565,019,917 407,596,527 624,704,957 469,525,166 1 Including Cyprus in this year.

! Including Korea.

' Excluding Wei-hai-wei.

home produce just enumerated. The value of the cotton manufactures exported sank from 80,164,155 in 1872 to 67,641,268 in 1876; woollen fabrics from 38,493, 411 to 23,020,719; iron and steel from 35,996,167 to 20,737,410; coals from 10,442,321 to 8,904,463; machinery from 8,201,112 to 7,210,426; and linen manufactures from 10,956,761 to 7,070,149. The decline during the four years, it will be seen, was greatest in all textile manufactures, and least in coal and machinery.

The table 1 on p. 602 shows the subsequent movement in value of imports from other countries to the United Kingdom, and of exports to other countries from the United Kingdom, at quinquennial intervals; bullion and specie being excluded.

As regards fluctuations not revealed by the above figures, it may be mentioned that the highest total figures for any one year during the period covered are those for 1907, viz. imports 645,807,942; exports 517,977,167- As to minima within the period, the lowest totals for British possessions were: imports 91,851,534 in 1893, and exports, the figure quoted for 1895; for foreign countries, imports 312,836,644 in 1893, and exports i9S,i33, 2 39 in 1894; grand totals, imports 404,688,178 in 1893, and exports 273,785,867 in 1894. It may be added that the maximal import figures for France within the period are those of 1906 (53,871,661), for Germany those of 1909, and for the United States those of 1901 (141,015,465). For exports to the United States the figures for 1909 were highest, to France those of 1907 (33,507>544) and to Germany those of 1907 (56,729,988).

The following table presents the value of the chief groups and articles of importation into the United Kingdom :

The value of the chief articles and groups of export of home produce are similarly shown:

1895- 1900.

1905- 1909.

Cotton yarn and manufactures . Iron and steel and manufactures Woollen yarn and manufactures Coal {. 63,746,463 19,428,383 ! 2 9,094-568 69,750,279 31,623,353 24.259,766 92.010,985 31,826.438 29,916,807 1zz 3,444,799 38,192,142 30,917,807 Machinery Chemicals Textiles (not cotton or wool) . Metal manufactures (not iron) Clothing Leather and leather goods Ships 15,150,522 11,463,304 11,986,718 5,048,588 5,615-594 3-833,980 19619.784 !3,i54.344 12,191,069 6.473,197 6,499,086 3,875.683 8,587,710 24,859 .1 29 23,260.326 14.536,857 13,204,899 8,920,533 6,021,242 5,660,494 5,431,298 37,129,978 28,057,643 16,783,019 12,441,525 8,708,945 9,824,125 4,242,356 5,927,114 The proportion of imports and exports per head of population of the United Kinedom was:

Year.

Total Imports.

Exports of British Produce.

1890 1895 1900 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 s. d. ii 46 10 12 6 12 14 3 13 i 5 13 18 5 14 12 6 13 6 3 13 17 7 s. d.

707 5 15 4 7 i 6 7 12 7 8 12 9 13 3 894 8 8 i 1zz 895- 1900.

1905.

1909.

Grain and flour 53,077,981 62,992,082 70,057,290 83,107,421 Meat Other principal articles of food and drink 33,334,171 46,782,579 49,431,748 47,623,428 Butter 14,235,230 17,450,435 21,586,622 22,424,962 Sugar 17,684,413 19,256,439 19,471,811 21,691,894 1zz 0,242,999 10,686,910 9,302,713 11,617,03! Wine 5,448,088 1zz 7 /I f\ A Sf\ coffee Fish (preserved) Cocoa and chocolate .... Principal fruits 3,778,305 2,289,260 1,610,483 2^441726 2,895-330 2,398,248 2!s781327 2,493,876 2,227,141 ,74,4 B 9 2,075,516 2,509,573 903,464 Apples .

QOO 271 T 22/1 6^7 _ f\Ae TOI Oranges 5^**f"/O 1,925,415 2 1 2O 7QO T'O ft 2,OO/)9^ ' Bananas 1zz 7702^6 T '5- '^ Tobacco ....

7 -7C-1 Ol6 7Q Q '^| 7 ''7 ' 5 1 ,752, 190 Raw materials o,*3oo-y 4.799,4 7 3,7 ,9 4,986,663 Cotton ....

30,522,016 4.1 117 "^08 _ -J7O 878 Wool 28,494,249 24!o73i9i7 26i64s!737 00,295,049 35,041,766 Oils, etc Wood and timber Textile materials excluding cotton 18,497.573 16,372,181 23,564,644 27,875,913 23,600,927 23,274,020 31,039,883 23,591,579 and wool Caoutchouc Hides and skins 11,378,608 3,760,178 11,553,114 6,986,133 8,465,660 14,511,978 9,643,153 12,127,707 14,138,204 II 6l 7 *7 ^6 Metallic ores excluding iron .

4is7s1929 5^575^72 7,610,990 8!327!i93 Iron ore, etc Manufactured articles 3,027,196 5,750,947 5,525,575 5,076,131 Yarns and textile fabrics . Metal, excluding iron and steel .

11,196,315 21,844,683 39,688,418 21,840,696 29,651,658 24,346,328 Leather 11,035,870 11,823,132 ",037,983 11,617,130 Chemicals 1zz ,628,279 Iron and steel (not machinery)

7,314,696 8^589405 71971!s94 Paper 2,845,730 4,412,440 5,256,065 5-647,437 Machinery 1zz 471= 887 O'T 1 / 0* / 4OJ/i / 4>43 8 ,33 t> Certain omissions are necessary in this table owing to alterations in classification of the returns.

1 Adapted from the Statistical Abstract for the United Kingdom, where it is specified that the value of new ships and boats, with their machinery, was not included in exports before 1899.

The tables on p. 604 show the value of unregistered imports of gold and silver bullion and specie from British possessions and from foreign countries into the United Kingdom, specifying the most important countries individually.

Shipping. The table at foot of p. 604 shows the tonnage of vessels entered from and cleared to British possessions and foreign countries at the principal ports of the United Kingdom.

_ For the purpose of showing the relative importance of British and Irish ports falling below the list, the following figures may be quoted for 1909 only: Methil, entered 824,375 tons, cleared 1,105,048 tons; Harwich, entered 792,980, cleared 776,595; Grangemouth, entered 988,007, cleared ! ,064,2 1 7 ; Burntisland, entered 609,722, cleared8i5,507 ; Bristol, entered8s8,933, cleared 61 5,266 ;GooIe, entered 8 1 5, 1 77, cleared 817,226; Hartlepool, entered 934,836, cleared 730,141 ; Newhaven, entered 385,313, cleared 376,083; Folkestone, entered 364,524, cleared 359,697 ; Belfast,entered490,5i3, cleared 165,670; Borrowstounness (Bo'ness), entered 301,549, cleared 292,194; Dublin, entered 219,081, cleared 80,868; Cork, entered 146,724, cleared 7413; Maryport and Workington, entered 118,388, cleared 67,494. The figures for Plymouth have included vessels which call " off " the port to embark passengers, etc., by tender only since 1907; for 1909 they were: entered, 1,455,605; cleared, 1,292,244.

The table at the commencement of page 605 shows the total tonnage of vessels entered from and cleared to British possessions and foreign countries at ports in the United Kingdom, and also the nationality of vessels under British and the principal foreign flags. Out of the following totals steam vessels had an aggregate tonnage of 30,604,578 entered and 31,080,481 cleared in 1890, and 64,327,508 entered and 64,968,655 cleared in 1909. The total tonnage of vessels entered and follows: (1890), 47,738,612 entered, cleared coastwise was as 2 Owing to an alteration in classification these figures are not strictly comparable with those for 1905.

604 UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 1zz 890.

1895- 1900.

1905- 1909.

From British possessions South Africa India .... Australia . Foreign countries Total . . .

5,368,424 1,876,677 443.079 1,398,627 18,199,625 23,568,049 17,618,466 8,353.913 1,929,590 5,324,498 18,390,863 36,009,329 11.350,591 378,626 3,637,978 6,182,718 14,840,282 26,190,873 38,567,895 21,286,374 6,850,360 3,440,037 4,949,335 43,517,230 40,464,212 32,912,428 2,170,957 2,613,002 14,227,617 54,691,829 1zz 890.

1895- 1900.

1905- 1909.

From British possessions . Foreign countries United States of America Total 350,094 10,035,565 4,057,709 10,385,659 282,269 10,384,063 8,082,925 10,666,332 264,676 13,057,624 11,459,612 13,322,300 412,756 12,579,258 9,784,828 12,992,014 667,619 11,147,270 9,971,396 11,814,889 4.2,317,876, cleared; (1895), 54,304,703 entered, 47,263,791 cleared; (1900), 55,828,569 entered, 54,425,666 cleared; (1905), 60,066,919 entered, 58,670,971 cleared; (1909), 60,566,043 entered, 60,060,979 cleared.

The number and gross tonnage of the registered sailing and steam vessels belonging to the United Kingdom were as follows at the end of each of the years named :

Year.

Sailing Vessels.

Steam Vessels.

Number.

Gross Tonnage.

Number.

Gross Tonnage.

1890 1895 1900 1905 1909 14,181 12,617 io,773 10,059 9,392 3,055,136 3,040,194 2,247,228 1,796,826 1,407,469 7,410 8,386 9,209 10,552 ",797 8,095,370 9,952,211 11,816,924 14,883,594 16,994732 These figures show not only that steamers have been rapidly taking the place of sailing vessels, but also that large steamers are preferred to small, their average tonnage having increased from 1092 tons in 1895 to 1440 in 1909.

Railways. The first ordinary roads deserving the name of highways were made about 1660, and canal-building began in 1zz 890.

1895.

1900.

1905.

1909.

Tons.

Tons.

Tons.

Tons.

Tons.

London ....

Entered (~*\ A 7,708,705 8,435,676 9,580,854 10,814,115 11,605,698 Cleared ' T7 j. J 5,772,062 6,110,325 7,479,008 7,9I3,"5 8,622,316 Liverpool and Birkenhead h-ntered Cleared 5,782,351 5,159,450 5,598,341 4,883,199 6,001,563 5,778,114 7,806,844 6,932,687 7,747,994 6,593,094 Cardiff ....

Entered 3,173,699 3,739,856 5,132,523 4,337,720 5,771,476 Cleared 5,641,5" 6,500,510 7,636,717 7.476,879 8,888,756 Tyne Ports 1 * 2 . .

Entered Cleared 3,401,216 5,010,098 3,292,624 4,822,648 3,897,142 4,894,157 4,058,618 5,158,899 5,700,405 6,899,023 Southampton Entered Cleared 888,352 813,133 1,420,531 1,328,393 1,613,913 1-395,486 2,087,277 1,888,030 4,279,052 4,108,063 Hull Entered 1,997,138 2,150,654 2,666,598 2,546,064 3,517,953 Cleared 1,655,996 1,612,385 2,274,137 2,102,160 3,164,156 Glasgow ....

Entered Cleared 1,121,700 1,697,662 1,184,537 1,911,739 1 ,454,860 2,229,574 1,635,609 2,836,462 1,917,144 3,160,916 Newport Entered Cleared 920,560 1,316,430 871,886 1,374,237 1,092,068 l,5",383 1,250,192 I,773,l6l 1,548,258 2,105,509 Dover Entered 789,846 742,940 973,074 2,928,741 1,636,530 Cleared 767,724 734,334 964,476 2,944,774 1.631,751 Middlesbrough .

Entered Cleared 833,562 623,967 953,985 875,059 1,096,130 882,156 1,227,017 1,092,958 1:728,385 1,586,148 Blyth 2 Entered 1zz 74,285 1,094,168 1,292,353 Cleared 1zz ,525,727 i ,623,003 1,836,503 Sunderland Entered 725,859 730,396 800,027 981,606 1,357,201 Cleared 956,266 1,002,552 1,163,310 1,344,999 1,676,777 Swansea * Entered 565,644 580,481 1,018,148 635,458 1,020,480 Cleared 858,215 931,588 1,427,903 ,335,134 1,719,654 Leith.

Entered 706,491 887,842 1,055,291 ,124,281 1,344,898 Cleared 626,573 750,257 982,309 ,085,734 1,314,361 Grimsby ....

Entered Cleared 663,513 689,165 763,892 829,837 931,238 960,236 ,094,531 ,074,495 1,289,476 1,334,566 Manchester .

Entered Cleared 1zz 17,625 288,001 787,497 595,757 ,133,003 970,620 1,275,937 1,067,835 1 Newcastle, North Shields, South Shields.

4 Blyth was included with North Shields till 1897.

3 Swansea included Port Talbot till 1904.

the middle of the following century; but though roads and canals aided materially in raising the commercial and industrial activity of the nation, their fostering agency was very slight compared with that of railways, of which England is the birthplace. The first line of railway for regular passenger service, that from Stockton to Darlington, 14 m. in length, was opened on the 27th of September 1825. The first really important railway was the line from Manchester to Liverpool, opened on the i sth of September 1830, when William Huskisson, M.P., was accidentally killed. It took three years to get the bill for the London-Birmingham railway, which was passed at last in the session of 1833, obtaining the royal assent on the Sth of May. The first sod of the great line was cut at Chalk Farm, London, on the 1st of June 1834. Enormous engineering difficulties had to be overcome, originating not so much from the nature of the ground as from intense public prejudice against the new mode of locomotion. It took over four years to construct the railway from London to Birmingham, at a cost exceeding 4,000,000. Even friends of the railway presaged that such outlay could not by any possibility be remunerative; but the contrary became evident from the moment the line was opened on the 17th of September 1838. All the great railway systems of England sprang into existence within less than ten years after the opening of the London-Birmingham line. Out of this railway grew one of the largest companies, the London & North- Western ; while the most extensive system as regards mileage, the Great Western, originated in a line from Paddington, London, to Bristol, for which an act of parliament was obtained in 1835, and which was opened in 1841. In 1836 a bill passed the legislature erecting the " Great North of England " Railway Company, from which was developed the North-Eastern system. A few years later other acts were passed, sanctioning the " Midland Counties" and the " North Midland " lines, from which the present Midland system grew.

The total length of railways conveying passengers in the United Kingdom at the end of the year 1825 was 40 m., constructed at a cost of i 20,000. Five years later, at the end of 1830, there were not more than 95 m., built at a cost of 840,925, but at the end of 1835 therewere2Q3m.,costing5,648,53i. Thus, in the first five years of railway construction, from 1825 to 1830, the mileage doubled; while in the second five years, from 1830 to 1835, it trebled. It quintupled in the next five-yearly period, till the end of 1840, [when the total length of miles of railway in the kingdom had come to be 1435, built at a cost of 41,391,634, as represented by the paid-up capital of the various companies. The next five years saw nearly another doubling of length of lines, for at the end of 1845 there were 2441 m. of railway created by a paid-up capital of 88,481,376.

1890.

1895.

1900.

1905.

1909, Total Entered Cleared Tons. 36,835-712 37,448,157 Tons. 40,001,691 40,537,483 Tons. 49,913,223 50,182,439 Tons. 55-623,974 56,416,760 Tons.

66,309,519 66,958,163 Rri+tcTi Entered 26,777,955 29,175,282 32,135-745 35,200,869 39,661,660 Dritisn Cleared 27,195,157 29,516,644 32,147,060 35,762,218 40,102,311 German ....

Entered Cleared 2,161,536 2,230,419 1,940,358 1,948,284 2,966,426 3,060,782 4,298,769 4,346,284 6,766,591 6,754,026 Norwegian Entered Cleared 2,477,936 2,522,865 2,604,049 2,660,795 3,839,602 3,821,969 3,392,216 3.387,152 4,315,870 4,308,221 C J* U Entered 783,045 990,728 1,788,844 2,114,028 2,456,144 owedisn ....

Cleared 792,767 1,003,634 ,808,354 2,117,717 2,478,534 Entered 901,819 961,730 ,735-288 2,106,717 2,889,986 L/tinisn ....

Cleared 952,183 990,006 ,759,509 2,123,830 2,886,731 riiti-/4i Entered 952,695 1,150,098 ,600,317 1,949,161 2,272,075 L/ULcn ....

Cleared 948,196 1,156,936 ,613,450 1,957-107 2,294,584 BIMMJ4I Entered 834,039 929,250 ,417,128 1,574-395 i ,640,466 r rencn ....

Cleared 852,935 909,493 ,405,247 1,587,762 1,663,197 Entered 631,629 645,210 ,309,915 1,462,488 1,477,199 Spanish ....

Cleared 644-431 682,184 ,399,332 1,471,300 1499,319 TJ 1 * Entered 449,470 551,513 804,472 936,918 1,355,135 Belgian ....

Cleared 423,639 537,969 797,134 920,597 1,357,668 TT <? A , Entered 146,721 323,700 282,152 664,360 274,241 U.S.A I Cleared 145,212 332,825 277,400 675,096 280,464 Not far from a fresh trebling took place in the course of the next quinquennial period, and at the end of 1850 there were 6621 m. of railways, constructed at the cost of 240,270,745.

The construction of railways (especially in England) was undertaken originally by a vast number of small companies, each under separate acts of parliament. But it was soon discovered that there could be neither harmonious nor profitable working of a great many systems, and this led to a series of amalgamations (see under ENGLAND; Ireland; SCOTLAND).

The number of passengers carried per mile in 1832 was 4860, but before ten more years were past the number of passengers had not only increased in proportion with the opening of new lines, but more than doubled per mile, and, instead of being under 5000, had in 1842 come to be near 12,000. In 1861 the number of passengers carried per mile of railway was 15,988; in 1876 it was 31,928; and in 1900 it was over 52,000.

The two following tables illustrate the further development of railways in the United Kingdom :

In 1909 the percentage of working expenses to total receipts was 63 in England and Wales, 57 in Scotland and 62 in Ireland.

Tramways. An act passed in 1870 to facilitate the construction of tramways throughout the country marks the beginning of their modern development. It led to the laying down of " street railways " in many large towns. According to a return laid before the House of Commons in the session of 1878, the total length of tramways authorized by parliament up to the 30th of June 1877 was 363 m., and the total length opened for traffic 213 m., comprising 125 m. of double lines and 88 m. of single lines. On the 30th of June 1900 there were in the United Kingdom 70 tramway undertakings with 585 m. of line belonging to local authorities, while 107 with 592 m. of line belonged to other than local authorities. The capital expenditure on the former amounted to 10,203,604, on the latter to 11,532,384. .

The development of tramway enterprise in the United Kingdom, as shown by the mileage open, the paid-up capital, gross receipts, working expenses and number of passengers carried, has been as follows :

Years ending June 30.

Miles open.

Paid-up Capital.

Gross Receipts.

Working Expenses.

Passengers carried during year.

1890 1895 1900 1905 1909 948 982 1177 2117 2526 13,502,026 14,111,521 20,582,692 51,501,410 70,345,155 1zz ,214,743 3,733,690 5,445,629 9,917,026 12,641,437 2,402,800 2,878,490 4,075,352 6,565,049 8,045,658 526,369,328 661,760,461 1,065,374,347 2,068,913,226 2,659,981,136 Year.

Mileage.

Paid-up Capital.

Number of Passengers.* Traffic Receipts.

Percentage of Working Expenses to Receipts.

Total.

Per Mile.

1860 io,433 348,130,127 163,435-678 27,766,622 2,661 1865 13,298 455,478,143 251,862,715 35,890,116 2,701 1870 15,537 529,908,673 336,545,397 43,417,070 2,794 1875 16,658 630,223,494 506,975,234 58,982,753 3,541 1880 17,933 728,316,848 603,885,025 62,961,767 3,5" 1885 19,169 815,858,055 697,213,031 66,644,967 3,477 1890 20,073 897,472,026 817,744,046 76,548,347 3-813 1895 21,174 1,001,110,221 929,770,909 81,396,047 3.844 1900 21,855 I,I76,OOI,89O 1,142,276,686 98,854,552 4,523 1905 22,847 1,272,601,000 1,199,022,102 105,131,709 4,601 1909 23,280 1,314,406,000 1,265,081,000 110,682,266 4,754 * Excluding season-ticket holders, whose number in 1880 was 502,174; in 1900, 1,749,804 and in England and Wales alone, in 1880, 449,823; in 1900, 1,610,754.

In the next table further details are given for 1909:

1909.

England and Scotland.

Ireland.

Wales.

AUTHORITIES. The following publications relating to the United Kingdom are issued annually in London (unless otherwise stated): Finance Accounts; Financial Estimates; Return showing Revenue and Expenditure (England, Scotland and Ireland); National Debt Accounts; National Debt during 60 Years; Local Taxation Returns; Army Estimates; Army Accounts; Army List (quarterly); Navy Estimates; Navy List (quarterly); Royal Commission on Agriculture, Reports (1896) ; Mineral Statistics; Reports of Inspectors of Mines ; Reports on Factories and Workshops; Reports of Inspectors of Fisheries; Return of Fish conveyed inland by rail; Statement of the Trade of the United Kingdom; Statement of the Shipping and Navigation of the United Kingdom ; Report of the Postmaster-General. Vital statistics : Reports of the registrars-general respectively for England, for Scotland (Edinburgh), for Ireland (Dublin); Census Reports (decennial, 1901, etc.), ditto; Education: Reports of the Board of Education for England and Wales ; Report of the Commissioners of National Education in Ireland; Report of the Committee of Council on Education in Scotland; Electoral Statistics (London, 1905) ; Statistical Tables relating to Emigration and Immigration ; Judicial Statistics of England and Wales, of Scotland, of Ireland; Local Government Reports, ditto; Statistical Abstract for the United Kingdom, in which the most important statistics are summarized for each of the fifteen years preceding the year of issue. Among books may be mentioned the following : Sir W. R. Anson, The Law and Custom of the Constitution (2 vols., 2nd ed., Oxford, 1892-1896) ; W. J. Ashley (edited by), British Industries (London, 1902); E. G. Boutmy, Le Developpement de la constitution et de la societe pplitique en Angleterre (2nd ed., Paris, 1897). Of this there is an English translation (from 1st ed.)

606 UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND Ireland by I. M. Eaden (London, 1891); Etudes de droit constitutionel France, Angleterre, Etats-Unis (Paris, 1885; Eng. trans, by E. M Dicey, London, 1891) ; Brassey, The Naval Annual (Portsmouth, .1886 onwards) ; Casself's Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland (London 1899); W. L. Clowes and other writers, History of the Royal Navy (London, 1896-1901); W. Cunningham, Growth of English Industry and Commerce (4th ed., London, 1904) ; A. V. Dicey, Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution (sth ed., London, 1897) ; R Donald (edited by) Municipal Year-book (London, annual); S, Eardley-Wilmot, Our Fleet To-day and its Development during the Last Half Century (London, 1900) ; Hon. J. W. Fortescue, History of the British Army (London, 1906); R. Giffen, Essays in Finance (London, 1880 and 1886); R. von Gneist, Das englische Parlament intausendjdhringen Wandelungen (Berlin, 1885; translated into English by A. H. Keane, History of the English Parliament, London, 1889) ; Englische Verfassungsgeschichte (Berlin, 1882 ; Eng. trans, by P. A. Ashworth, London, 1891) ; E. Hull, The Coalfields of Great Britain (Lojndon, 1995) ; J. E. T. Rogers, Industrial and Commercial History idon, 1892); . ; Sir J. (2 vols.,_London, 1895); H. Taylor," The Origin and Growth of the of England (London, 1892); J. Holt Schooling, The British Trade Book (London, 1908); Sir J. R. Seeley, The Growth of British Policy English Constitution (2 vols., London, 1889-1899); A. Todd, Parliamentary Government in England (new ed., revised by S. Walpole, 2 vols., London, 1892).

British Military Forces.

The forces of the British Crown may be classed as (a) the regular, or general service, army, together with the Indian army; and (b) the home territorial force; while there are also certain forces controlled by the governments of the various selfgoverning dominions. The home government raises, pays and controls the regular'army, its reserves, the territorial force, and some few details such as the militia of the smaller possessions, Indian native battalions employed on imperial service out of India, etc. But the cost of that portion of the regular army which is in India is borne by the Indian government, which is not the case with the regulars serving in other colonies or in the dominions. Consequently the Indian government, unlike the colonial governments, can within limits dispose of the British paid regulars within its Sphere.

Regular Army. The duties of the regular army are to garrison India and overseas colonies, to garrison Great Britain and Ireland, and to find expeditionary forces of greater or less strength for war in Europe or elsewhere. The principles upon which the reorganization of 1905-1908 was based are: (a) that in peace the army at home must be maintained at such an effective standard that all necessary drafts for the army abroad shall be forthcoming, without undue depletion of the army at home; (b) the home army on mobilization for service should be brought up to war strength by the recall of reservists in sufficient, but not too great, numbers; (c) the wastage of a campaign shall be made good by drafts partly from the remaining army reserve, but above all from the militia, now converted into the special reserve; and (d) the volunteers and yeomanry, reorganized into the territorial force, shall be responsible, with little regular help, for the defence of the home country, thus freeing the regular army at home for general service. The first of these conditions entirely, the second largely, and even indirectly the third and fourth depend upon the recruiting, establishments and terms of service of the regular army. These last are a compromise between the opposite needs of short service, producing large reserves, and long service, which minimizes the seatransport of drafts; they are also influenced by the state of the labour market at any given moment, as recruiting is voluntary. To enable the authorities to deal with these conditions, the secretary of state for war may without special legislation vary the terms of enlistment, not only in general but also for the various arms and branches.

After the South African War, several different terms were tried for the line infantry and cavalry, but these experiments proved that the terms formerly prevailing, viz. 7 years with the colours and 5 in the reserve, were the most convenient. In the Horse and Field Artillery the term is 6 and 6, in the Household Cavalry and the Garrison Artillery 8 and 4, and in the Foot Guards 3 and 9. Engineers and other specialists are recruited on various terms. A certain number, again varying from year to year, almost from month to month are allowed to engage for the full 12 years with the colours (long service). Thus in 1907-1908, 1551 men were serving on a 12-year colour engagement, 24,856 on a term of 7 years colours and 5 reserve, 3589 on a 6 and 6 term, 3449 on 3 and 9 engagement, 4529 for other terms, out of a total of 37,974 recruits or soldiers signing fresh engagements.

The following figures show the inflow of recruits:

By units, it is composed of 3 regiments of Household Cavalry, 7 regiments of Dragoon Guards, 3 of Dragoons, 6 of Lancers and 12 of Hussars (total cavalry, 31 regiments); 4 regiments of Foot Guards of 9 battalions, 51 English and Welsh, 10 Scottish and 8 Irish line infantry and rifle regiments (total infantry, 149 battalions) ; the Royal Regiment of Artillery, divided into Royal Horse and Field Artillery, and Royal Garrison Artillery the R.H.A. consisting of 28 batteries, the R.F.A. of 150 batteries, the R.G.A. of 100 companies (told off to garrisons, siege train and heavy field oatteries) and 8 batteries mountain guns; the Corps of Royal Engineers, organized into mounted field troops, field companies, 'ortress, telegraph, railway, searchlight, balloon, wireless companies and bridging train ; the Army Service Corps, divided into transport, supply, mechanical-transport and other companies and sections ; the Royal Army Medical Corps of 35 companies; the Army Ordnance Corps; the Army Veterinary Corps; Army Post Office Corps (formed on mobilization only) and Army Pay Corps.

In addition, there are the following colonial troops under the lome government: West India Regiment, 2 battalions; Royal Malta Artillery, 2 garrison companies; West African Frontier Force, 2 batteries, I garrison company, I battalion M.I., 6 battalions nfantry; and King's African Rifles (East Africa), 5 battalions, >esides the Indian troops in imperial services.

The army reserve, formed of men who have served with the colours, onsists of four classes. Sections A, B and C consist of men who are ulfilling the reserve portion of their original twelve years' liability. Section A, which receives extra allowances, is liable to be called ip in a minor emergency ; section B is the general reserve; section C, also part of the general reserve, consists of men who have been sent to the reserve prematurely; section D (which is often sus>ended) consists of men who at the expiry of their twelve years' engagement undertake a further four years' reserve liability.

Strength and Ages of the Army Reserve (Oct. I, 1909).

Section.

B&C.

Total.

Infantry . . . . Cavalry R.H. & F.A. . .

4,051 604 70,998 8,894 13,849 9,608 1,229 i,57i 84,657 10,123 16,024 1zz ,748 1zz 189 1zz 15 4,200 1zz ,021 Others 1zz ,356 1zz 0,341 1zz ,497 "5,045 14,014 134,556 Under 30 98,146 2O I 98,347 30-35 21,730 10,758 32,488 Over 35 1zz ,055 3,721 1zz 20,542 14,014 134,556 The special reserve, converted from the militia, consists of nfantry, field and garrison artillery, the Irish Horse (late Yeomanry), engineers, and a few A.S.C. and R.A.M.C. Its object is to make ;ood on mobilization deficiencies (so far as they may exist after the UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND Ireland 607 calling in of the army reserve) in the expeditionary or regular forces, and to repair the losses of a campaign. It also acts as a feeder to the regular army. Its establishment and strength on the 1st of October 1909 were 90,664 and 69,954 respectively, without counting in the latter figure 6172 militia and militia reserve men not then absorbed into the new organization.

The war organization of the home establishment, with its general and special reserves, aimed at the mobilization and despatch overseas of 6 army divisions, each of 12 battalions in 3 brigades; 9 field batteries in 3 brigades, a brigade of 3 field howitzer batteries, and a heavy battery, each with the appropriate ammunition columns; 2 field companies and i telegraph company R.E.; 2 companies mounted infantry; and ambulances, columns and parks. In addition to these 6 divisions, there are " army troops " at the disposal of the commander-in-chief, consisting of two mixed " mounted brigades " (cavalry, mounted infantry, and horse artillery) serving as the " protective cavalry," and of various technical troops, such as balloon companies and bridging train. The " strategical " cavalry is a division of 4 brigades (12 regiments or 36 squadrons), with 2 brigades (4 batteries) of horse artillery, 4 " field troops " and wireless company R.E., and ambulances and supply columns. The peace organization of the regular forces at home conforms to the prospective war organization. In addition to the field army itself, various lines of communication troops are sent abroad on mobilization. These number some 20,000 men, the field army about 135,000, with 492 field guns, 7561 other vehicles and 60,769 horses and mules.

But the first condition of employing all the home regulars abroad is perfect security at home. Thus the pivot of the Haldane system is the organization of the Territorial Force as a completely self-contained army. The higher organization which the volunteers (q.v.) and yeomanry (q.v.) never possessed varies only slightly from that in vogue in the regular army. The second line army consists of 14 mixed mounted brigades as protective cavalry and 14 army divisions of much the same combatant strength as the regular divisions, the only important variation being that the artillery consists of 4-gun instead of 6-gun batteries. In addition to the divisions and mounted brigades there are " army troops," of which the most important component is the cyclist battalions, recruited in the different coast counties and specially organized as a first line of opposition to an invader. Affiliated to the territorial force are officers' training corps, cadets, " veteran reserves," and some of the other organizations mentioned below, the Haldane scheme having as its express object the utilization of every sort of contribution to national defence, whether combatant or non-combatant, on a voluntary basis.

The conditions of enlistment and reserve in the territorial force are a four years' engagement (former yeomen and volunteers being however allowed to extend for one year at a time if they desire to do so), within each year a consecutive training in camp of 14-18 days and a number of " drills " (attendances at company and battalion parades) that varies with the branch and the year of service. The minimum is practically always exceeded, and trebled or quadrupled in the case of the more enthusiastic men, and the chief difficulty with which the officers responsible for training have to contend is the fact that no man can be compelled to attend on any particular occasion. Attendance at the camp training, in so far as the claims of men's civil employment do not infringe upon it, is compulsory, and takes place at one time for all generally the first half of August.

The army troops, divisions and mounted brigades consist of 56 regiments of yeomanry; 14 batteries and 14 ammunition columns R.H.A.,_ 151 batteries and 55 ammunition columns R.F.A., 3 mountain batteries and ammunition column, and 14 heavy batteries and ammunition columns R.G.A.; 28 field companies, 29 telegraph companies, railway battalion, etc., R.E.; 204 battalions infantry (including 10 of cyclists, the Honourable Artillery Company, and certain corps of the Officers' Training Corps training as territorials) ; 60 units A.S.C.; 56 field ambulances, 23 general hospitals and 2 sanitary companies R.A.M.C. Told off to the defended seaports are 16 groups of garrison artillery companies and 58 fortress and electric light companies R.E.

Establishment and Strength (April I, 1910)

Arm or Branch.

Establishment.

Strength.

Yeomanry R.H. & F.A. . .

Officers.

Men.

Officers.

Men.

1,345 1,211 450 571 5,679 322 1,438 I 9 8 24,766 32,945 ",455 14,660 195,297 8,562 13,664 H i-'93 1,015 406 525 5,064 277 MS' 95 24,219 29,658 9-356 12,896 173,670 7,577 11,849 R.G.A.

R.E. . .

Infantry .

A.S.C.

R.A.M.C.

Total . . .

11,214 301,363 9,726 l 269,225 The Territorial Force is enlisted to serve at home, but individuals and whole corps may volunteer for service abroad in war if called upon. A register is kept of those who accept this liability beforehand, and about 6000 officers and men had joined it in April 1910.

The force is trained, commanded and inspected exclusively by the military authorities, the regular army finding the higher commanders and staffs. But in accordance both with the growing tendency to separate command and administration and with the desire to enhst local sympathies and utilize local resources, " associations," partly of civilian, partly of military members, were formed in every county and charged by statute with all matters relating to the enlistment, service and discharge of the county's quota in the force, finance (other than pay, etc. in camp), buildings, ownership of regimental property, etc. To these duties of county associations are added that of supervising and administering cadet corps of all sorts (other than officers' training corps), and that of providing the extra horses required on mobilization, not only by the territorial force, but by the expeditionary force as well.

There are several groups of more or less military character which are for various reasons outside war office control. These are: (a) boys' brigades the Church Lads' Brigade, the London Diocesan Brigade, the Jewish Lads' Brigade, etc.; (b) the Legion of Frontiersmen, an organization intended to enroll for " irregular " service men with colonial or frontier experience; (c) rifle clubs, which exist solely for rifle practice, and have no military liabilities ; (d) boy scouts, an organization founded in 1908 by Lieut.-General Sir R. S. S. Baden-Powell.

Command and Administration. The secretary of state for war is the head of the army council, which comprises the heads of departments and is the chief executive authority. These departments (see STAFF) are: the general staff; the adjutantgeneral's department; the quartermaster-general's department; the department of the master-general of the ordnance; the civil member's department; and the finance member's department. In addition to these departments, whose heads form the army council itself, there is the very important department of the inspector-general of the forces, whose duties are to ensure by inspection the maintenance of military efficiency and an adequate standard of instruction, etc. This department is thus in the main a complement of the general staff branch. In 1910 the commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean was appointed inspector-general of the overseas forces other than those in India, and the inspector-general in London supervises therefore only the forces in the home establishment. There are, therefore, three single authorities of high rank for the great divisions of the army the two inspectors-general and the commander-in-chief in India.

The United Kingdom is subdivided into 7 commands and 12 districts, the commands under a lieutenant-general or general as commander-in-chief and the districts under brigadier-generals. The commands are the eastern, southern, western, northern, Scottish, Irish and the Aldershot. London is organized as a separate district under a major-general. In the colonial establishment the principal commands are the Mediterranean (including Egypt) and the South African. Except in South Africa, there are no imperial troops quartered in the self-governing colonies.

Since 1904-1905 command and administration have been separated and general officers commanding in chief relieved of administrative details by the appointment to their staffs of majorgenerals in charge of administration (see STAFF and OFFICERS).

Finance. The army estimates for 19101911 show a total sum f 27,760,000 required for the home and colonial establishments, made up as follows (after deducting appropriations in aid) :

1 Does not include unattached list of officers, 853, or 736 R.A.M.C. officers not available until mobilization.

608 UNITED METHODIST UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH Regular Army, Pay and Allowances 8,733,000 Special Reserve 833,000 Territorial Force 2,660,000 Medical Services 452,000 Educational Establishments 147,000 Quartering, Transport, Remounts 1,589,000 Supplies, Clothing 4,397,000 Stores and Ordnance Establishment 533,ooo Armament and Engineer Stores 1,482,000 Works, Buildings and Land, etc 2,598,000 War Office and Miscellaneous 503,000 Pensions, etc 3,833,000 27,760,000 The pay of the soldiers has increased since the South African War. Without allowances of any kind, it was in 1910 as follows: Warrant officer, 53. to 6s. per day; quartermaster-sergeants, coloursergeants, etc., 33. 4d. to 43. 6d. ; sergeants, 2s. 4d. to 33. 4d. ; corporals, is. 8d. to 2s. 8d. ; lance-corporals, is. 3d. to is. gd. ; privates is. id. to is. 9d. ; boys, 8d. In addition, all receive a messing allowance of 3d. per day, 2d. for upkeep of kit, and most receive " service " or " proficiency " pay at 3d.-6d a day; and engineers, A.S.C. and R.A.M.C. specialist pay at various rates. Officers' pay, without allowances, is for second lieutenants 55. 3d. to 73. 8d. ; lieutenants, 6s. sd. to i 8s. lod. ; captains, us. 7d. to 153.; majors, 133. 7d. to i8s. 6d. ; and lieutenant-colonels, i8s. to 243. gd.

Indian Army. The forces in India consist of the British army on the Indian establishment and the Indian native army with its dependent local militias, feudatories, contingents, etc. In addition there is a force of European and Eurasian volunteers, drawn largely from railway employes. The Indian army consists of 138 battalions of infantry, 10 regiments of cavalry, 16 mountain batteries, i garrison artillery company, 32 sapper and miner companies (2 railways companies included). The proportion between British and Indian troops observed since the Mutiny is roughly one British to two native, the Indian army being about 162,000 men. In addition the native army includes supply and transport corps, the medical service, and the veterinary service, officered in the higher ranks by officers of the A.S.C., R.A.M.C. and A.V.C. respectively.

The Indian army is recruited from Mahommedans and Hindus of various tribes and sects, and with some exceptions (chiefly in the Madras infantry) companies, sometimes regiments, are composed exclusively of men of one class. The official F.S. Pocket Book 1908 gives the following particulars: Mahommedans (Pathans of the frontier tribes, Hazaras Baluchis, Moplahs, Punjabi Mahommedans, etc-), 350 infantry companies, 76 squadrons (35% of the army). Hindus (Sikhs, Gurkhas, Rajputs, Jats, Dogras, Mahrattas, Tamils, Brahmans, Bhils, Garhwalis, etc.), 727 companies, 79 squadrons (63-3%).

Enlistment is entirely voluntary, and the army enjoys the highest prestige. Service is for three years, but in practice the native soldier makes the army his career and he is allowed to extend up to 32 years. The native cavalry is almost entirely Silahdar, in which the trooper mounts and clothes himself, and practically serves without pay. In the infantry, too, the old system of paying men and requiring them to equip, clothe and feed themselves, is in vogue to some extent. There is a reserve of the native army, numbering some 35,000 men. But it is rather a draft to replace wastage than a means of bringing the army up to a war footing in the European way. Indeed, a cardinal principle of the Indian forces, British and native alike, is that the units are maintained in peace at full war effective, often a little above their field strength. Part of the army, nearest the north-west frontier, has even its transport practically in readiness to move at once. The command is in the hands of British officers assisted by native officers, promoted from the ranks. The number of native officers in a unit is equal to that of the British officers.

Besides the regular native army there are: (a) various frontier and other levies, such as the Khyber Rifles and the Waziristan Militia; (b) selected contingents from the armies of the native princes, inspected by British officers, numbering about 20,000 and styled " imperial service troops "; (c) the volunteers, about 32,000 strong; and (d) the military police.

The general organization of the forces is into two armies, the northern and the southern, with headquarters at Rawal Pindi and Poona respectively. , Administration. Under the governor-general in council the cpmmander-in-chief (himself a member of the council) is the executive authority. Under him in the army department, now divided into higher committees and the headquarter staff, the latter comprising (since the abolition of the military staff department under Lord Kitchener's reorganization) the divisions of the chief of the general staff, the adjutant-general and the quartermaster-general. India has her own staff college at Quetta, and can manufacture rifles, ammunition and field artillery equipment except the actual guns.

The cost of the Indian army, and of the British forces on the Indian establishment, borne by the Indian government in 1909 was 20,558,000.

Regulars only.

Northern Army.

Southern Army.

Total.

British 40,608 34-143 74,751 Indian Army, white . native . .

Total . .

1,534 85,189 1,512 76,772 3,046 161,961 86,723 78,284 165,007 Total 127,331 112,427 239,758 Forces of the Dominions and Colonies. Lord Kitchener and Sir John French in 1900-1910 paid visits of inspection to Australia and Canada in connexion with the reorganization by the local governments of their military forces, and a beginning was made of a common organization of the forces of the empire in the colonial military conference of 1909. Without infringement of local autonomy and local conditions, a common system of drill, equipment, training and staff administration was agreed on as essential, and to that end the general staff in London was to evolve into an " imperial general staff." The object to be attained as laid down was twofold; (a) complete organization of the territorial forces of each dominion or colony; (b) evolution of contingents of colonial general-service troops with which the dominion governments might assist the army of Great Britain in wars outside the immediate borders of each dominion. (See BRITISH EMPIRE; AUSTRALIA; CANADA.)

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

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