UNGAVA, an unorganized territory of the Dominion of Canada, including the north-western side of the peninsula of Labrador (q.v.), bounded by Hudson Bay on the W. as far S. as East Main River; Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay on the N.; and with indefinite boundaries toward Quebec on the S., and the coast strip of Labrador belonging to Newfoundland on the E. The area is estimated at 354,961 sq. m. Ungava includes much of the lower portion of Labrador, with a rim of recent marine deposits along its western coast, but the interior has the usual character of low rocky hills of Archean rocks, especially granite and gneiss, with a long band of little disturbed iron-bearing rocks, resembling the Animikie, or Upper Huronian of the Lake Superior region, near its eastern side. Along Hudson Bay shore there is a strip of similar rocks, and a long row of small islands of the same age, with great sheets of trap or diabase forming the tops of the hills. The iron formation is widely spread. There is evidence that Ungava, like the rest of Labrador, has risen several hundred feet since the Ice Age, marine beaches being found up to 700 ft. on the Hudson Bay side; and it is interesting to find seals like those of the adjoining seacoasts in the Seal Lakes 100 m. inland and 800 ft. above the present sea-level. Owing to its northerly position a large part of Ungava is treeless, and belongs to the barren grounds where caribou roam and feed on the socalled caribou moss, a greyish lichen.
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)