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UMBER, a brown mineral pigment consisting of hydrated iron and manganese oxides. The finely-powdered mineral is known as raw umber; when calcined the beauty of the colour increases and the pigment is known as burnt umber. It was probably first obtained from Umbria in Italy, but it occurs in many localities, notably in Cyprus (Turkey umber); large quantities of English umber are mined in Devonshire and Cornwall. (See PIGMENTS.)

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

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