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TUNGABHADRA, a river of southern India, the chief tributary of the Kistna. It is formed by the junction of two streams, the Tunga and the Bhadra, which both rise in Mysore in the Western Ghats. The united river for nearly all its course forms the boundary between Madras and the dominions of the nizam of Hyderabad. On its right bank stood the capital of the ancient Hindu dynasty of Vijayanagar, now a wilderness of ruins. From of old its waters have been utilized for irrigation. Near its confluence with the Kistna it supplies the KurnoolCuddapah Canal. A project has been recently under consideration to dam the river higher up, and there construct an artificial lake that would have an area of 160 sq. m., the cost of this scheme being roughly estimated at nearly 6,000,000.

T'UNG-CHOW, a sub-prefectural city in Chih-li, the metropolitan province of China, on the banks of the Peiho in 39 54' N. 116 41' E., 12 m. E. of Peking. Its population is estimated at about 50,000.

T'ung-Chow marks the highest point at which the Peiho is navigable, and here merchandise for Peking is transferred to a canal. The city, which is faced on its eastern side by the river, and on its other three sides is surrounded by populous suburbs, is upwards of 3 m. in circumference. The walls are about 45 ft. in height and about 24 ft. wide at the top. They are being allowed to fall into decay. Two main thoroughfares connect the north and south gates and the east and west gates. The place derives its importance from the fact that it is the port of Peking. Like most Chinese cities, T'ung-Chow has appeared in history under various names. By the founder of the Han dynasty (206 B.C.) it was called Lu-Hien; with the rise of the T'ang dynasty (618 A.D.) its name was changed to Huan-Chow; and at the beginning of the 12th century, with the advent of the Kin dynasty to power, Huan-Chow became T'ung-Chow. It was at T'ung-Chow that Sir Harry Parkes, Sir Henry Loch and their escort were treacherously taken prisoners by the Chinese when they were sent forward by Lord Elgin to negotiate terms of peaee after the troubles of 1860. During the Boxer outbreak in 1900 T'ung-Chow was occupied by the allied armies, and a light railway connecting the city with Peking was constructed by German military engineers.

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

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