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TORAN, the name in Hindustani (Skr. torana, from tor, pass) of a sacred or honorific gateway in Buddhist architecture. Its typical form is a projecting cross-piece resting on two uprights or posts. It is made of wood or stone, and the cross-piece is generally of three bars placed one on the top of the other; both cross-piece and posts are usually sculptured.

10RBERNITE (or cupro-uranite), a mineral which is one of the " uranium micas "; a hydrous uranium and copper phosphate, Cu(UO 2 )2(PO4)2+i2H 2 O. Crystals are tetragonal and have the form of square plates, which are often very thin. There is a perfect micaceous cleavage parallel to the basal plane, and on this face the lustre is pearly. The bright grass-green colour is a characteristic feature of the mineral. The hardness is z\ and the specific gravity 3-5. The radio-activity of the mineral is greater than that of some specimens of pitchblende. It was first observed in 1772 at Johanngeorgenstadt in Saxony, but the best examples are from Gunnislake near Calstock and Redruth in Cornwall. The name torbenite is after Torbern Bergman: chalcolite is a synonym. (L. J. S.)

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

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