SURMA, or BARAK, a river of Assam, India. It is one of the two chief rivers of the province, watering the southern valley as the Brahmaputra waters the northern and larger valley. It rises in the Barail range to the north of Manipur, its sources being among the southern spurs of Japvo. Thence its course is south with a slight westerly bearing, through the Manipur hills to British territory. The name of Barak is given to the upper part of the river, in Manipur and Cachar. A short distance below Badarpur in Cachar it divides into two branches. One of these, which passes Sylhet, is called Surma. The other is called Kusiara till it subdivides into (a) a branch called Bibiana or Kalni, which joins the Surma near Ajmiriganj, and (b) a branch which resumes the name of Barak and joins the Surma near Habiganj. At Bhairab Bazar in Mymensingh the Surma unites with the old Brahmaputra and becomes known as the Meghna. The river is navigable by steamers as far as Silchar in the rains. Total length about 560 m.
The SURMA VALLEY AND HILL DISTRICTS DIVISION is a division of the province of Eastern Bengal and Assam. It includes the five districts of Sylhet Cachar, Lushai hills, Naga hills, and Khasi and Jaintia hills, with a total area of 25,481 sq. m. and a population in 1901 of 3,084,527.
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)