Stone River, Battle Of
STONE RIVER, BATTLE OF, a battle of the American Civil War, called the battle of Murfreesboro by the Confederates, fought on the 31st of December 1862 and the 2nd of January 1863. After his appointment in October to command the Army of the Cumberland, General W. S. Rosecrans with Chattanooga as his objective moved from Nashville upon General Braxton Bragg, who left the winter quarters he had established at Murfreesboro and met the Union army on Stone river immediately north of Murfreesboro, on the last day of December. The plan of attack on each side was to crush the enemy's right. Bragg's left, commanded by Lieut .-General W. J. Hardee, overlapped and bore back the Union right under Major- General A. McD. McCook, and Major-General T. L. Crittenden commanding the Union left was hurriedly called back from his attack on the Confederate right to support McCook. The Union right was crumpled up on the centre, where Major-General G. H. Thomas's corps checked the Confederate attack. There was practically no fighting on the 1st of January, but on the 2nd the Confederates renewed the attack, Major-General J. C. Breckinridge with Bragg's right attempting in vain to displace Crittenden's division on high ground above the river. On the night of the 3rd Bragg withdrew and the Union army occupied Murfreesboro. Tactically a drawn battle, Stone River was strategically a Union victory. The losses on both sides were heavy: of 37,712 Confederates present for duty, 1294 were killed, 7945 were wounded, and about 2500 were missing; and of 44,800 Union soldiers present for duty, 1677 were killed, 7543 were wounded and 3686 were missing.
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)