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SRINAGAR, capital of the state of Kashmir, in Northern India, 5250 ft. above sea-level, on both banks of the river Jhelum, which winds through the city with an average width of 80 yds. and is crossed by seven wooden bridges. The houses occupy a length of about 3 m. and a breadth of about i| m. on either side of the river; but the greater part of the city lies on the right bank. No two buildings are alike. The curious grouping of the houses, the frail tenements of the poor, the substantial mansions of the wealthier, the curious carving of some, the balconies of others, the irregular embankment and the mountains in the background, form a quaint and picturesque spectacle. Area, 3795 acres. Pop. (1901), 122,618. The city is exposed to both fire and flood. In 1893 six of the seven bridges were swept away, and great damage was again caused in 1903. A regular water-supply has been provided. The artisans of Srinagar enjoy a high reputation. Unfortunately, the historic industry of shawl-weaving is now practically extinct. The loss of the French market after the war of 1870 was followed by the famine of 1877-1879, which drove many of the weavers into the Punjab, and the survivors have taken to the manufacture of carpets. Other industries are paper, leather, papier machS, silver and copper ware, wood-carving and boat-making. The three chief routes of communication with India are: (i) along the Jhelum valley to Murree and Rawalpindi, which has been opened throughout for wheeled traffic (195 m.); (2) over the Banihal pass (9200 ft. above the sea) to Jammu (163 m.); (3) over the Pir Panjal pass (11,400 ft.) to Gujrat (180 m.).

See Sir Walter R. Lawrence, The Valley of Kashmir (1895); M. A. Stein, Chronicle of the Kings of Kashmir (1900).

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

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