SPANISH LANGUAGE The Iberian Peninsula is not a linguistic unit. Not to speak of the Basque, which still forms an island of some importance in the north-west, three Romance languages share this extensive territory: (i) Portuguese-Galician, spoken in Portugal, Galicia, and a small portion of the province of Leon'; (2) Castilian, covering about two-thirds of the Peninsula in the north, centre, and south; (3) Catalan, occupying a long strip of territory to the east and south-east.
These three varieties of the Romano, rustica are marked off from one another more distinctly than is the case with, say the Romance dialects of Italy; they do not interpenetrate one another, but where the one ends the other begins. It has only been possible to establish at the points of junction of two linguistic regions the existence of certain mixed jargons in which certain forms of each language are intermingled; but these jargons, called into existence for the necessities of social relations by bilinguists, have an essentially individualistic and artificial character. The special development of the vulgar Latin tongue in Spain, and the formation of the three linguistic types just enumerated, were promoted by political circumstances. From the 9th century onwards Spain was slowly recaptured from the Mahommedans, and the Latin spoken by the Christians who had taken refuge on the slopes of the Pyrenees was gradually carried back to the centre and ultimately to the south of the Peninsula, whence it had been driven by the Arab invasion. Medieval Spain divides itself into three conquistas that of Castile (much the most considerable), that of Portugal, and that of Aragon. If a given province now speaks Catalan rather than Castilian, the explanation is to be sought simply and solely in the fact that it was conquered by a king of Aragon and peopled by his Catalan subjects.
i. Catalan. This domain now embraces, on the mainland, the Spanish provinces of Gerona, Barcelona, Tarragona and Lerida (the old principality of Catalonia), and of Castellon de la Plana, Valencia and Alicante (the old kingdom of Valencia), and, in the Mediterranean, that of the Balearic Islands (the old kingdom of Majorca). Catalan, by its most characteristic features, belongs to the Romance of southern France and not to that of Spain; it is legitimate, therefore, to regard it as imported into Spain by those Hispani whom the Arab conquest had driven back beyond the mountains into Languedoc, and who in the 9th century regained the country of their origin; this conclusion is confirmed by the fact that the dialect is also that of two French provinces on the north of the Pyrenees Roussillon and Cerdagne. From the gth to the 12th century Catalan spread farther and farther within the limits of Catalonia, properly so called; in 1229 it was brought to Majorca by Jaime el Conquistador, and in 1238 the same sovereign carried it to Valencia also. Even Murcia was peopled by Catalans in 1266, but this province really is part of the Castilian conquest, and accordingly the Castilian element took the upper hand and absorbed the dialect of the earlier colonists. The river Segura, which falls into the Mediterranean in the neighbourhood of Orihuela, a little to the north of Murcia, is as nearly as possible the southern boundary of the Catalan domain; westward the boundary coincides pretty exactly with the political frontier, the provinces of New Castile and Aragon not being at all encroached on. Catalan, which by the reunion of Aragon and the countship of Barcelona in 1137 became the official language of the Aragonese monarchy although the kingdom of Aragon, consisting of the present provinces of Saragossa, Huesca and Teruel, has always been Castilian in speech established a footing in Italy also, in all parts where the domination of the kings of Aragon extended, viz. in Sicily, Naples, Corsica and Sardinia, but it has not maintained itself here except in a single district of the last-named island (Alghero); everywhere else in Italy, where it was not spoken except by the conquerors, nor written except in the royal chancery, it has disappeared without leaving a trace.
In the 13th century the name given to the vulgar tongue of eastern Spain was Catalanesch (Catalaniscus) or Catala (Catalanus) the idiom of the Catalans. 1 By Catalanesch or Catala was understood, essentially, the spoken language and the language of prose, while that of poetry, with a large admixture of Provencal forms, was early called Lemosi, Limosi or language of Limousin Catalan grammarians, and particularly the most celebrated of them, Ramon Vidal de Besalu, having adopted Lemosi as the generic name of the language of the troubadours. These grammarians carefully distinguish the vulgar speech, or pla Calald, from the refined trobar idiom, which originally is a modified form of Provencal. Afterwards, and especially in these parts of the Catalan domain outside of Catalonia which did not acknowledge that they derived their language from that province, Lemosi received a more extensive signification, so as to mean the literary language in general, whether of verse or of prose. To this hour, particularly in Valencia and the Balearics, Lemosi is employed to designate on the one hand the old Catalan and on the other the very artificial and somewhat archaizing idiom which is current in the jochs florals; while the spoken dialect is called, according to the localities, Valencid (in Valencia), Majorqul and Menorqui (in Majorca and Minorca), or Catald (in Catalonia); the form Catalanesch is obsolete.
The principal features which connect Catalan with the Romance of France and separate it from that .of Spain are the following: (i) To take first its treatment of the final vowels Catalan, like French and Provencal, having only oxytones and paroxytones, does not admit more than one syllable after the tonic accent: thus anima gives arma, camera gives cambra. All the proparoxytones of modern Catalan are of recent introduction and due to Castilian influence. Further, the only post-tonic Latin vowel preserved by the Catalan is, as in Gallo-Roman, a : mare gives mar, gratu (s) gives grat, but anima gives arma; and, when the word terminates in a group of consonants requiring a supporting vowel, that vowel is represented by an e : arb(o)rem, Cat. abre (Prov. and Fr. arbre, but Cast, drbof); pop(u)l(us), Cat. poble (Prov. poble, Fr. peuple, but Cast, pueblo); sometimes, when it is inserted between the two consonants instead of being made to follow them, the supporting vowel is represented by an o : escdndol (scandalum), frevol (f r i v o 1 u s) , clrcol (circulus). In some cases a post-tonic vowel other than a is preserved in Catalan, as, for example, when that vowel forms a diphthong with the tonic (Dew, Deus; E6n'M,Hebreus); or, again, it sometimes happens, when the tonic is followed by an in hiatus, that the i persists (diltivi, diluvium; servici, servicium; Idbi, labium; ciri, cere us); but in many cases these ought to be regarded as learned forms, as is shown by the existence of parallel ones, such as seniey, where the atonic i has been attracted by the tonic and forms a diphthong with it (servici, servii, seniey). What has just been said as to the treatment of the final vowels in Catalan must be understood as applying only to pure Catalan, unaltered by the predominance of the Castilian, for the actual language is no longer faithful to the principle we have laid down; it allows the final o atonic in a number of substantives and adjectives, and in the verb it now conjugates canto, temo, sento a thing unknown in the ancient language. (2) As regards conjugation only two points need be noted here: (a) it employs the form known as the inchoative, that is to say, the lengthening of the radical of the present in verbs of the third conjugation by means of the syllable ex or ix, a proceeding common to Italian, Walachian, Provencal and French, but altogether unknown in Hispanic Romance; (b) the formation of a great number of past participles in which the termination is added, as in Provencal, not to the radical of the verb, but to that of the perfect: tingut from tinch, pogut from poclt, conegut from conech, while in Castilian tenido (formerly also tenudo), podido, conocido, are participles formed from the infinitive.
As for features common to Catalan and Hispanic (Castilian and Portuguese) Romance, on the other hand, and which are unknown to French Romance, only one is of importance; the conservation, namely, of the Latin u with its original sound, while the same vowel has assumed in French and Provencal, 1 The origin of the name Catalanus is unknown.
from a very early period earlier doubtless than the oldest existing monuments of those languages a labio-palatal pronunciation (u). It is not to be supposed that the separation of Catalan from the Gallo-Roman family occurred before the transformation had taken place; there is good reason to believe that Catalan possessed the u at one time, but afterwards lost it in its contact with the Spanish dialects.
Catalan being a variety of the langue d'oc, it will be convenient to note the peculiarities of its phonetics and inflexion as compared with ordinary Provencal.
Tonic Vowels. With regard to a, which is pronounced alike in open and close syllables (amar, a ma re; abre, arbor), there is nothing to remark. The Latin e, which is treated like J, gives e, sometimes close, sometimes open. On this point Catalan is more hesitating than Provencal; it does not distinguish so clearly the pronunciation of e according to its origin ; while e (i) is capable of yielding an open e, the e is often pronounced close, and the poets have no difficulty in making words in e close and in e open rhyme together, which is not the case in Provencal. The Latin e never yields ie in Catalan as it does in French and occasionally in Provencal ; s e d e t becomes sen (where represents the final d) , p e d e m makes pen, and e g o eu ; in some words where the tonic e is followed by a syllable in which an i occurs, it may become i (ir, h e r i; mig, m e d i u s; mils, m e 1 i u s) ; and the same holds good for e in a .similar situation (ciri, c S r i u s, c e r e u s; fira, t e r i a), and for e in a close syllable before a nasal (eximpli, e x e m p 1 u m ; mintre for mentire, gint for gent). I tonic long andt short, when in hiatus with another vowel, produce i (amich, a m i c u s; via, v i a). O tonic long and o short are represented by o close and o open (amor, a m o r e m ; poble, p o p u 1 u s). short is never diphthongized into uo or tie ; such a treatment is as foreign to Catalan as the diphthongization of e into ie. Just as e before a syllable in which an i occurs is changed into i, so in the same circumstances o becomes u (full, folium; vull, v o 1 i o for v o 1 e o) and also when the accented vowel precedes a group of consonants like cl, pi, and the like (ull, o c ' 1 u s; escull, s c o p ' 1 u s). Latin u persists with the Latin pronunciation, and, as already said, does not take the FrancoProvencal pronunciation u. Latin an becomes o (cosa, c a u s a ; ; or, a u r u m) ; Old Catalan has kept the diphthong better, but possibly we should attribute the examples of au which are met with in texts of the 13th and 14th centuries to the literary influence of Provence. Latin ua tends to become o (cor, q u a r e).
Atonic Vowels. As for the Latin post-tonic vowels already spoken of, it remains to be noted that a is often represented in writing by e, especially before s; in old Catalan, the substantives, adjectives and participles readily form their singular in a and their plural in es : arma, armes (a n i m a, a n i m a s) ; bona, bones (b o n a, b o n a s) ; amada, amades (a m a t a, am a t a s). This e is neither open nor close, but a surd e the pronunciation of which comes very near a. In the same way the supporting vowel, which is regularly an e in Catalan, is often written a, especially after r (abra, a r b o r e m; astra, a s t r u m ; para, p a t r e m) ; one may say that in the actual state of the language post-tonic e and a become indistinguishable in a surd sound intermediate between the French a and mute e. Before the tonic the same change between a and e constantly takes place ; one finds in manuscripts enar, emor for anar, amor (the same extends even to the case of the tonic syllable, ten and sent from t a n t u m and sanctum being far from rare), and, on the other hand, antre, arrar, for entre, errar. I atonic is often represented by e even when it is long (vehi, v i c i n u s). atonic close, which in genuine Catalan exists only before the tonic, has become u; at the present day truvar, cuntradir is the real pronunciation of the words spelt trovar, contradir, and in the final syllables, verbal or other, where under Castilian influence an o has come to be added to the normal Catalan form, this o has the value of a M: trovo (genuine Catalan, trap) is pronounced trovu; bravo (genuine Catalan, brau) is pronounced bravu. U atonic keeps its ground.
The only strong diphthongs of the spoken language are di, du (rather rare), ei, eu, iu, 6i, 6u, ui, uu. At produced by a+i or by a +a palatal consonant has for the greater part of the time become an e in the modern language; factum has yielded fait, feit, and then fet, the last being the actual form ; arius has given er alongside of aire, ari, which are learned or semi-learned forms. Of the two weak diphthongs io and ud, the latter, as has been seen, tends to become o close in the atonic syllable, and is pronounced u: quaranta has become coranla, then curanta. After the tonic ua often becomes a in the Catalan of the mainland (ay fa, aqua, llenga, lingua), while in Majorca it becomes o (aygo, llengo).
Consonants. Final t readily disappears after n or I (tan, t a n t u m ; aman, venin, partin, for amant, venint, etc. ; mol, m u 1 1 u m; ocul, o c u 1 1 u m) ; the t reappears in composition before a vowel (fan, f o n t e m, but Font-alba). On the other hand, a t without etymological origin is frequently added to words ending in r (cart for car, quare; mart for mar, mare; amart, ohirt, infinitive for amar, ohir), and even to some words terminating in a vowel (genit, i n g e n i u m ; premit, p r e m i u m), or the addition of the / has taken place by assimilation to past participles in it. The phenomenon occurs also in Provengal (see Romania, vii. 107, viii. no). Median intervocal d, represented by s (z) in the first stage of the language, has disappeared : f i d e 1 i s gave fesel, then feel, and finally fel ; v i d e t i s became vezets, then veets, vets and veu. Final d after a vowel has produced u (peu, p e d e m ; niu, n i d u m ; mou, m o d u m) ; but when the d, in consequence of the disappearance of the preceding vowel, rests upon a consonant, it remains and passes into the corresponding surd ; f r i g i d u s gives fred (pronounced fret). The group dr, when produced by the disappearance of the intermediate vowel, becomes ur (creure, credere; ociure, occidere; veure, v i d 6 r e ; seure, s e d 6 r e). Final n, if originally it stood between two vowels, drops away (bo, b o n u m ; vi, v i n u m), but not when it answers to mn (thus d o n u m makes do, but d o m n u m don ; s o n u m makes so, but s o m n u m son). Nd is reduced to n ( demanar, comanar for demandar, comandar). Assibilated c before e, i is treated like d ; within a word it disappears after having been represented for a while by i (1 u c e r e gives llusir, lluhir ; r e c i p e r e gives rezebre, reebre, rebre) ; at the end of a word it is replaced by u (veu, y i c e m ; feu, fecit). The group c'r gives ur, just like d r (jaure, j a c e r e ; naure, n o c e r e ; plaure, placere; but facere, dicer e, ducere, make far (fer), dir, dur. Initial / has been preserved only in certain monosyllables (the article lo, los); everywhere else it has been replaced by / mouillte (Prov. Ih), which in the present orthography is written // as in Castilian, but formerly used to be represented by ly or yl (lletra, 1 i t e r a , llengua, lingua). P readily disappears after m, like t after n (cam, c a m p u m ; terns, t e m p u s). B is replaced by the surd p at the end of a word (trobar in the infinitive, but trap in the present tense) ; so also in the interior of a word when it precedes a consonant (supyenir, subvenire, sopte, sub' to). Median intervocalic / gives v (Esteve, S t e- p h a n u s) ; it has disappeared from profundus, which yielded the form preon, then pregon (g being introduced to obviate the hiatus). V, wherever it has been preserved, has the same pronunciation as b; at the end of a word and between vowels it becomes vocalized into u (suau, s u a v i s; viure, v i v e r e). C guttural, written qu before e and i, keeps its ground as a central and as a final letter; in the latter position it is generally written ch (amich, a m I c u m ; joch, j o c u m). G guttural is replaced as a final letter by surd c (longa, but lone; triear, but trtch). Tj after a consonant gives ss (cassar, c a p t i a r e) ; between vowels, after having been represented by soft s, it has disappeared (r a t i o n e m gave razo, rayso, then raho) ; at the end of every word it behaves like ts, that is to say, changes into u (preu, p r e t i u m) ; instead of ts the second person plural of the verb a t (i)s, e t(i)s, it(i)s now has au, eu, iu after having had ats, ets its. Dj gives g between vowels (verger, y i r i d i a r u m), and c as a. terminal (written either ig or tx : goig, gaudium mig, mitx, m e d i u m). Stj and sc before e and i, as well as x and ps, yield the sound sh, represented in Catalan by x (angoxa, a n g u s t i a ; coneixer, cognoscere; dix, dixit; matetx. metipse). / almost everywhere has taken the sound of the French j (jutge, etc.). Lj and U give / mouilUSe (U in the present orthography -fill, f i 1 i u m ; consett, c o n s i 1 i u m ; null, n u 1 1 u m). In the larger portion of the Catalan domain this I mouil!6e has become y. almost everywhere fiy is pronounced for fill, consey for consett. Nj and nn give n mouillee (ny in both old and modern spelling : senyor. s e n i o r e m ; any, annum). Sometimes the ny becomes reduced to y; one occasionally meets in manuscripts with seyor, ay, for senyor, any, but this pronunciation has not become general, as has been the case with the y having its origin in U. Lingual r at the end of a word has a tendency to disappear when preceded by a vowel : thus the infinitives amare, temere, *legire are pronounced amd, teme, llegi. It is never preserved except when protected by the non-etymological t already spoken of (llegirt or llegi, but never ueglr) ; the r reappears, nevertheless, whenever the infinitive is followed by a pronoun (donarme, dirho). Rs is reduced to s (cos for cars, corpus). H is merely an orthographic sign ; it is used to indicate that two consecutive vowels do not form a diphthong (vehi raho), and, added to c, it denotes the pronunciation of the guttural c at the end of a word (amich).
Inflexion. Catalan, unlike Old Provencal and Old French, has never had declensions. It is true that in certain texts (especially metrical texts) certain traces of case-endings are to be met with, as for example Deus and Deu, amors and amor, clars and clar, forts and fort, tuyt and tots, obduy and abdos, senyer and senyor, emperaire and emperador; but, since these forms are used convertibfy, the nominative form when the word is in the objective, and the accusative form when the word is the subject, we can only recognize in these cases a confused recollection of the Provencal rules known only to the literate but of which the transcribers of manuscripts took no account. Catalan, then, makes no distinctions save in the gender and the number of its nouns. As regards the formation of the plural only two observations are necessary, (i) Words which have their radical termination in n but which in the singular drop that n, resume it in the plural before i: homin-em makes ome in the singular and omens in the plural ; asin-um makes ase and asens. (2) Words terminating in s surd or sonant and in x anciently formed their plural by adding to the singular the syllable es (bras, brasses; pres, preses; mateix, matrixes), but subsequently, from about the isth century.
the Castilian influence substituted os, so that one now hears brasses, presos, mateixos. The words in tx, sc, st have been assimilated to words in s (x) ; from bosch we originally had the plural bosches,_ but now boscos; from trist, tristes, but now tristos. For these last in st there exists a plural formation which is more in accordance with the genius of the language, and consists in the suppression of the s before the I; from aquest, tor example, we have now side by side the two plurals aquestos, in the Castilian manner, and aquets. The article is lo, los (pronounced lu, lus in a portion of the domain), fern, la, les (las). Some instances of li occur in the ancient tongue, applying indifferently to the nominative and the objective case; el applying to the singular is also not wholly unknown. On the north-western border of Catalonia, and in the island of Majorca, the article is not a derivative from ille but from ipse (sing. masc. es or so, fern, so,; pi. masc. es, and also ets, which appears to come from istos ets for ests, like aquets for aquests fem. sas). Compare the corresponding Sardinian forms su, sa, pi. sos, sas. On the pronouns it has only to be remarked that the modern language has borrowed from Castilian the composite forms nosaltres and vosaltres (pronounced also nosaltros and nosatrus), as also the form voste, vuste (Castilian usted for vuestra merced).
Conjugation. Catalan, and especially modern Catalan, has greatly narrowed the domain of the 2nd conjugation in g r e; a large number of verbs of this conjugation have been treated as if they belonged to the 3rd in ere; debere makes deure, v i d e r e, mure, and alongside of haber, which answers to h a b 6 r e, there is a form heure which points to h a b g r e. A curious fact, and one which has arisen since the 15th century, is the addition of a paragogic r to those infinitives which are accented on the radical; in a portion of the Catalan domain one hears creurer, veurer. Some verbs originally belonging to the conjugation in e r e have passed over into that in ir; for example t e n e r e gives tenir alongside of tindre, r e m a- n e r e romanir and romandre. In the gerundive and in the present participle Catalan differs from Provencal in still distinguishing the conjugation in ir from that in er, re saying, for example, sentint. As in Provengal, the past participle of a large number of verbs of the 2nd and 3rd conjugations is formed, not from the infinitive, but from the perfect (pogut, volgut, tingut suggest the perfects poch, volch, tinch, and not the infinitives poder, voter, tenir). In the present indicative and subjunctive many verbs in ir take the inchoative form already described, by lengthening the radical in the three persons of the singular and in the third person of the plural by means of the syllable esc (isc). agrahir has the present indicative agraesch, agraheixes, agraheix, agraheixen, the present subjunctive agraesca, -as, -a, -an (or more usually now agraesqui, -is, -i, -in). The old perfect of the conjugation in ar had e (also ) in the 1st pers. sing, and -ain the 3rd ; alongside of the -a, which is proper to Catalan exclusively, we also find, in the first period of the language, -el as in Provencal. Subsequently the perfect of the three conjugations has admitted forms in -r (amdres, amdrem, amareu, amdren), derived from the ancient pluperfect amara, etc., which has held its ground down to the present day, with the meaning of a conditional in some verbs (one still hears /era, haguera). But the simple perfect is no longer employed in the spoken language, which has substituted for it a periphrastic perfect, composed of the infinitive of the verb and the present of the auxiliary anar: vaig pendre, for example, does not mean " I am going to take," but " I have taken." The earliest example of this periphrastic perfect carries us back to the 15th century. The most usual form of the subj. pres. in spoken Catalan is that in -i for all the three conjugations (ami, -is, -i, -em, -eu -in; temi, -is, etc. ; senti, -is_, etc.) ; it appears to be an abbreviation from -io, and in effect certain subjunctives, such as cdntia, temia, tinguia, oinguia (for cante, tema, tinga, vingia), evidently formed upon sia (subj. of esser), have been and still are used. The same i of the present subjunctive, whatever may be its origin, is still found in the imperfect : ames, -essis, -cs, -essium, etc.
Catalan Dialect of Alghero (Sardinia). As compared with that of the mainland, the Catalan of Alghero, introduced into this portion of Sardinia by the Aragonese conquerors and colonists, does not present any very important differences; some of them, such as they are, are explicable by the influence of the indigenous dialects of Sassari and Logudoro. In phonetics one observes (i ) the change of Ij into y as an initial before i (yitx, yigis; lego, leeis), a change which does not take place in the Catalan of the mainland except in the interior, or at the end of the word; (2) the frequent change of I between vowels and of / after c, g, f,porb into r (taura tabula; candera, candela; sangrot, singultum; frama, flama). In conjugation there are some notable peculiarities. The 1st pers. sing, does not take the o which continental Catalan has borrowed from Castilian (cant, not canto, etc.) ; the imp. ind. of verbs of the 2nd and 3rd conjugations has eva, iva instead of ia, a form which also occurs in the conditional (cantariva, drumiriva) ; the simple perfect, of which some types are still preserved in the actual language (e.g. anighe, aghe), has likewise served for the formation not only of the past participle but also of the infinitive (agher, habere,_ can only be explained by ach, 3rd person of the perfect) ; the infinitives with r paragogic (viurer, seurer, plourer) are not used (viure, seure, ploure instead) ; in the conjugation of the present of the verb essar or esser, the 2nd pers. sing, ses formed upon the persons of the plural, while continental Catalan says ets (anciently est), as also, in the plural, sem, seu, instead of som, sou, are to be noted ; tenere has passed over to the conjugation in re (trenda = tendre) , but it is at the same time true that in ordinary Catalan also we have tindrer alongside of tenir the habitual form; dicere gives not dir but diure, which is more regular.
2. Castilian. This name is the most convenient designation to apply to the linguistic domain which comprises the whole of central Spain and the vast regions of America and Asia colonized from the 16th century onwards by the Spaniards. We might also indeed call it the Spanish domain, narrowing the essentially geographical meaning of the word Espanol (derived, like the other old form Espanon, -from Hispania), and using it in a purely political sense. But the first expression is to be preferred, all the more because it has been long in use, and even the inhabitants of the domain outside the two Castiles fully accept it and are indeed the first to call their idiom Castellano. It is agreed on all hands that Castilian is one of the two branches of the vulgar Latin of Spain, Portuguese-Galician being the other; both idioms, now separated by very marked differences, can be traced back directly to one common source the Hispanic Romance. One and the same vulgar tongue, diversely modified in the lapse of time, has produced Castilian and Portuguese as two varieties, while Catalan, the third language of the Peninsula, connects itself, as has already been pointed out, with the Gallo-Roman.
Within the Castilian domain, thus embracing all in Spain that is neither Portuguese nor Catalan, there exist linguistic varieties which it would perhaps be an exaggeration to call dialects, considering the meaning ordinarily attached to that word, but which are none the less worthy of attention. Generally speaking, from various circumstances, and especially that of the reconquest, by which the already-formed idiom of the Christian conquerors and colonists was gradually conveyed from north to south, Castilian has maintained a uniformity of which the Romance languages afford no other example. We shall proceed in the first instance to examine the most salient features of the normal Castilian, spoken in the provinces more or less closely corresponding to the old limits of Old and New Castile, so as to be able afterwards to note the peculiarities of what, for want of a better expression, we must call the Castilian dialects.
In some respects Castilian is hardly further removed from classical Latin than is Italian; in others it has approximately reached the same stage as Provencal. As regards the tonic, accent and the treatment of the vowels which come after it, Castilian may be said to be essentially a paroxytonic language, though it does not altogether refuse proparoxy tonic accentuation and it would be a mistake to regard vocables like lampara, Idgrima, rdpido, etc., as learned words. In this feature, and in its almost universal conservation of the final vowels e, i, u (o), Castilian comes very near Italian, while it separates from it and approaches the Gallo-Roman by its modification of~ the consonants.
Vowels. Normal Castilian faithfully preserves the vowels e, i, o, u; the comparatively infrequent instances in which e and o are treated like e and o must be attributed to the working of analogy. It diphthongizes e in ie, o in ue, which may be regarded as a weakening of uo (seeRomania, iv. 30). Sometimes ie and ue in the modern language are changed into i and e: silla from sell a (Old Cast. siella), vispera from vespera (Old Cast, viespera), castiUo from c a s t e 1 1 u m (Old Cast, castiello) , frente from f r o n t e m (Old Cast. fruente), fleco from floccus (Old Cast, flueco). The words in which & and o have kept their ground are either learned words like medico, merito, or have been borrowed from dialects which do not suffer diphthongization. In many cases the old language is more rigorous; thus, while modern Castilian has given the preference to mente, como, modo, we find in old texts miente, cuemo, muedo. Lat. a u makes o in all words of popular origin (cosa, oro, etc.).
Consonants. On the liquids /, m, n, r there is little to be remarked, except that the last-named letter has two pronunciations one soft (voiced), as in amor, burla, the other hard (voiceless), as in rendir, tierra (Old Cast, in this case goes so far as to double the initial consonant : rrendir) and that n is often inserted before i and d: ensayo, mensage, rendir (redd ere). L mouillee (written U) represents not only the Latin /, II, Ij, but also, at the beginning of words, the combinations cl, gl, pi, bl, fl: llama (f 1 a m m a), Have (c 1 a v i s), ttorar (p 1 o r a r e) ; the tendency of the modern language is, as in Catalan, to reduce II to y, thus one readily hears yeno (p 1 e n u m). N mpuillee (n) corresponds to the Lat. nn, mn, nj, and sometimes to initial n : ano (annum), dano (d a m n u m), nudo (n o d u m). Passing to the dentals, except as an initial, t in words that are popularly current and belong to the old stock of the language, can only be derived from Lat. U, pt, and sometimes ct, as in meter (mitt ere), catar (cap tare), punlo (p u n c t u m) ; but it is to be observed that the habitual mode of representing ct in normal Castilian is by ch (pron. tch), as in derecho (d i rectum), pecho (pec t us), so that we may take those words in which t alone represents ct as secondary forms of learned words; thus we have bendito, otubre, santo as secondary forms of the learned words bendicto, octubre, sancto, alongside of the old popular forms bendicho, ochubre, sancho. D corresponds in Castilian to Latin t between vowels, or t before r: amado (a m a t u s), padre (p a t r e m). At the present day the d of the suffixes ado, ido is no longer pronounced throughout the whole extent of the domain, and the same holds good also of the final d : salu, pone, for salud, poned (from s a 1 u t e m, p o n i t e). Sometimes d takes the interdental sound of z (English th), or is changed into /; witness the two pronunciations of the name of the capital Madriz and Madril (adj. Madrileno). The study of the spirants, c, z, s; g, j is made a very delicate one by the circumstance that the interdental pronunciation of c, z on the one hand, and the guttural pronunciation of g, j on the other, are of comparatively recent date, and convey no notion of the value of these letters before the 17th century. It is admitted, not without reason, that the spirants c, z, which at present represent but one interdental sound (a lisped s, or a sound between i and Eng. th in thing), had down till about the middle of the 16th century the voiceless sound ts and the voiced sound dz respectively, and that in like manner the palatal spirants g, j, x, before assuming the uniform pronunciation of the guttural spirant ( = Germ, ch in Buck), had previously represented the voiced sound of z (Fr. j) and the voiceless sound of (Fr. ch), which are still found in Portuguese and in the Castilian dialects of the north-west. The substitution of these interdental and guttural sounds for the surd and sonant spirants respectively did certainly not take place simultaneously, but the vacillations of the old orthography, and afterwards the decision of the Spanish Academy, which suppressed x (=$', x was retained for cs) and allows only c and g before e and i, z and j before a, o, u, make it impossible for us to follow, with the help of the written texts, the course of the transformation. S now has the voiceless sound even between vowels: casa (pronounced cassa); final i readily falls away, especially before liquids: todo los for todos los, vamono for vamos nos. The principal sources of j (g) are Lat. j and g before e and i (juego, j o c u m ; genie, g e n t e m) ; Lat. initial i (jabon, s a p o n e m) ; Lat. x (cojo, c o x u m) ; Ij, cl (consejo, c o n- s i 1 i u m ; ojo, o c'l u m). The sources of z (c) are Lat. ce, cj, tj, s (cielo, c a e 1 u m ; calza, c a 1 c e a ; razon, rationem; zampona, s y nip h o h i a). As regards the spirants / and f, It is to be observed that at the beginning of a word / has in many instances been replaced by the aspirated h (afterwards silent), while in others no less current among the people the transformation has not taken place; thus we have hijo (f i 1 i u m) alongside of fiesta (f e s t a). In some cases the/ has been preserved in order to avoid confusion that might arise from identity of sound : the/ in /ie/ (f i d e 1 i s) has been kept for the sake of distinction from hiel (f e 1). As for v, it has a marked tendency to become confounded, especially as an initial letter, with the sonant explosive b; Joseph Scaliger's pun bibere est vivere is applicable to the Castilians as well as to the Gascons. H is now 'nothing more than a graphic sign, except in Andalusia, where the aspirate sound represented by it comes very near j. Words beginning in hue, where the h, not etymologically derived, marks the inseparable aspiration of the initial diphthong ue, are readily pronounced gue throughout almost the whole extent of the domain: giiele for huele (o 1 e t) ; gueso for hueso (o s). This giie extends also to words beginning with hue : gtieno for bueno (b o n u m).
Inflexion. There is no trace of declension either in Castilian or in Portuguese. Some nominative forms Dios (anciently Dios, and in the Castilian of the Jews Dio), Carlos, Marcos, saslre (s a r t o r) have been adopted instead of forms derived from the accusative, but the vulgar Latin of the Peninsula in no instance presents two forms (subjective and objective case) of the same substantive. The article is derived from i 1 1 e, as it is almost everywhere throughout the Romance regions: el, la, and a neuter lo\ los, las. The plural of the first and second personal pronoun has in the modern language taken a composite iorm-^-nosotros, vosotros which has been imitated in Catalan. Quien, the interrogative pronoun which has taken the place of the old qui, seems to come from q u e m.
Conjugation. The conjugation of Castilian (and Portuguese) derives a peculiar interest from the archaic features which it retains. The vulgar Latin of Spain has kept the pluperfect indicative, still in current use as a secondary form of the conditional (cantdra, vendiera, partiera), and, what is more remarkable still, as not occurring anywhere else, the future perfect (cantdre, vendiere, partiere, formerly cantdro, vendiero, partiero). The Latin future has been replaced, as everywhere, by the perirphasis (cantare habeo), but it is worth noticing that in certain old texts of the i5th century, and in the popular songs of a comparatively ancient date which have been preserved in Asturias, the auxiliary can still precede the infinitive (habeo cantare), as with the Latin writers of the decadence: " Mucho de mayor pregio a seer el tu man to Que non sera el nuestro " (Berceo, 5. Laur., str. 70), where a seer (habet seder e) corresponds exactly to serd (s e d e r e habet). The vulgar Latin of the Peninsula, moreover, has preserved the 2nd pers. pi. of the imperative (cantad, vended, partid), which has disappeared from all the other Romance languages. Another special feature of CastilianPortuguese is the complete absence of the form of conjugation known as inchoative (intercalation, in the present tense, of the syllable isc or esc between the radical and the inflexion), although in all the other tenses, except the present, Spanish shows a tendency to lay the accent upon the same syllable in all the six persons, which was the object aimed at by the inchoative form. Castilian displaces the accent on the 1st and 2nd pers. pi. of the imperfect (cantdbamos, cantdbais), of the pluperfect indicative (cantdramos, cantdrais), and of the imperfect subjunctive (cantdsemos , cantdseis) ; possibly the impulse to this was given by the forms of future perfect cantdremos, cantdreis (cantanmus, cantaritis) . The 2nd persons plural were formerly (except in the perfect) -odes, -edes, -ides; it was only in the course ot the 16th century that they got reduced, by the falling away of d, to ais, eis and is. The verb e s s e r e has been mixed, not as in the other Romance languages with stare, but with s e d e r e, as is proved by older forms seer, siedes, sieden, seyendo, obviously derived from s e d e r e, and which have in the texts sometimes the meaning of " to be seated," sometimes that of " to be," and sometimes both. In old Latin charters also sedere is frequently met with in the sense of esse: e.g. " sedeat istum meum donativum quietum et securum " (anno 1134), where sedeat sit. The 2nd pers. sing, of the present of ser is eres, which is best explained as borrowed from the imperfect (eras), this tense being often used in Old Spanish with the meaning of the present; alongside of eres one finds (but only in old documents or in dialects) sos, formed like sois (2nd pers. pi.) upon somos. The accentuation in the inflexion of perfects in the conjugation called strong, like hubieron hizieron, which correspond to habuerunt, fecerunt (while in the other Romance languages the Latin type is 6 runt: Fr. eurent, firent), may be regarded as truly etymological, or rather as a result of the assimilation of these perfects to the perfects known as weak (amdron), for there are dialectic forms having the accent on the radical, such as dixon, hizon. The past participle of verbs in er was formerly udo (u t u s) in most cases ; at present ido serves for all verbs in er and ir, except some ten or twelve in which the participle has retained the Latin form accented on the radical : dicho, hecho, visto, etc. It ought to be added that the past participle in normal Castilian derives its theme not from the perfect, but from the infinitive: habido, sabido, from haber, saber, not from hubo, supo.
CASTILIAN DIALECTS. To discover the features by which these are distinguished from normal Castilian we must turn to old charters and to certain modern compositions in which the provincial forms of speech have been reproduced more or less faithfully.
Asturian. The Asturian idiom, called by the natives bable, is differentiated from the Castilian by the following characters. le occurs, as in Old Castilian, in words formed with the suffix ellum (castiellu, portiellu), while modern Castilian has reduced ie to i. E, i, u, post-tonic for a, e, o: penes (penas), grades (gracias), esti (este), frenti (f rente) , llechi (leche) , nucchi (noche) , unu (uno) , primeru (primero). There is no guttural spirant, _;', but, according to circumstances, y or x (S) ; thus Lat. cl, Ij gives y : veyu (*v e c 1 u s), espeyu (spec'lum), conseyu (consi'.ium); and after an i this y is hardly perceptible, to judge by the forms fin (f ilium),' escoidps (Cast, escogidos), Casiia (Castillo); Lat. g before e and i, Lat. initial j, and Lat. ss, x, give x (S) xiente (g e n t e m), xudiu (J u d a e u s), baxu (b a s s u s), coxu (c o x u s), floxu (f 1 u x u s). Lat. initial / has. kept its ground, at least in part of the province: fiu,fueya(Cast. hijo, hoja). A very marked feature is the habitual " mouillure " of / and n as initial letters : Heche, lleer, lluna, Hutu ; non, nunca, nueve, nube. With respect to inflexion the following forms may be noted : personal pronouns: * (tilt), yos (illos); possessive pronouns: mio, pi. mios; to, tos; so, sos for both masc. and fern.; verbs: 3rd pers. pi. imp. of the 2nd and 3rd conjugations in in for ien (Cast, ian) ; train, tenin, facin (f rom facer) , fiin (from/er), and even some instances of the 2nd pers. sing, (abis; Cast, habias); instances of pres. subj. in ia for a (sirvia, metia, sepia). The verb ser gives yes (sometimes yeres) in the 2nd pers. sing., ye in the 3rd. F a c e r e appears under two forms facer and fer and to the abridged form correspond feis, fiendo, fiin, etc. Ire often appears under the form dir (antes de diros = antes de iros), which it is not necessary to explain by de-ire (see H. Schuchardt, Ztschr.f. rom. Philol., v. 312).
Navarrese-Aragonese. In its treatment of the post-tonic vowels this dialect parts company with normal Castilian and comes nearer Catalan, in so far as it drops the final e, especially after nt, rt (mont, plazient, muert, fuert, parents, gents) ; and, when the atonic e has dropped after a v, this v becomes a vowel breu (b r e v e m) , rieu (*g r e y e m), nueu (n p v e m). Navarrese-Aragonese has the iphthongs ie, ue from tonic e and 6, and adheres more strictly to them than normal Castilian does cuende (c 6 m i t e m), huey (h6die), pueyo (podium), yes (est), yeran (erant), while Castilian says conde, hoy, poyo, es, eran. The initial combinations d, pl,.fl, have withstood the transformation into // better than in Castilian: piano, plena, plega, clamado, flama are current in ok documents^ and at the present day, although the / has come to be " mouillee," the first consonant has not disappeared (plluma, pllord pllano pronounced pljuma, etc.). Lat. ct gives it, not ch as in Castilian: nueyt (n o c t e m), destruito (destructum), proveito (provectum), dito for ditto (dictum). D between vowels kept its ground longer than in Castilian: documents of the 14th century supply such forms as vidieron, vido, hudio, provedir, redemir, prodeza, Benedit, vidiendo, etc. ; but afterwards y came to be substituted iordordj : veyere (v i d e r e), seyer (seder e), seya (s e d e a t), goyo (g a u d i u m), enueyo (i n o d i u m). Initial / does not change into h : fillo, feito. Navarrese-Aragonese does not possess the guttural spirant (i) of Castilian, which is here rendered according to circumstances either by g (Fr. j) or by // (/ mouillee), but never by the Asturian x. Certain forms of the conjugation of the verb differ from the Castilian: dar, estar, haver, saber, poner readily form their imperfects and imperfect subjunctives like the regular verbs in ar and er havieron (Cast. hiibieron), estaron (Cast, estubieron), sabio (Cast, sitpo), dasen (Cast, diesen), poniese (Cast, pusiese) ; on the other hand, past participles and gerundives formed from the perfect are to be met with /merado for faciendo (peri.fiso), tuviendo and tuvido for teniendo, lenido (perf. tuvo). In the region bordering on Catalonia the simple perfect has given way before the periphrastic form proper to Catalan: voy cayer (I fell), vafe (he has done), vamos ir (we went), etc. ; the imperfects of verbs in er, ir, moreover, are found in eba, iba (comeba, subiba, for comia, subia), and some presents also occur where the Catalan influence makes itself felt: estigo (Cat. estich), vaigo (Cat. vaig), veigo (Cat. veig). Navarrese-Aragonese makes use of the adverb en as a pronoun: no les en daren pas, no'n hi ha.
Andalusian. The word " dialect " is still more appropriately applied to Andalusian than either to Asturian or Navarrese- Aragonese. Many peculiarities of pronunciation, however, are commonly called Andalusian which are far from being confined to Andalusia proper, but are met with in the vulgar speech of many parts of the Castilian domain, both in Europe and in America. Of these but a few occur only there, or at least have not yet been observed elsewhere than in that great province of southern Spain. They are the following: L, n, r, d between vowels or at the end of a word disappear: sd (sal), so (sol), vice (viene), tiee (tiene), paa and pa (para), mia (mira), naa and na (nada), too and to (todo). Z> is dropped even from the beginning of a word: e (de), inero (dinero), on (don). Before an explosive, I, r, d are often represented by i: saiga (saiga), vaiga (valga), laigo (largo), maire (madre), paire (padre). Lat. / is more rigorously represented by h than in normal Castilian, and this h here preserves the aspirate sound which it has lost elsewhere; babld, horma (forma), hoder, are pronounced with a very strong aspiration, almost identical with that of j. The Andalusians also very readily write these words jabld, jorma, joder. This aspirate, expressed by j, often has no etymological origin; for example, Jdndalo, a nickname applied to Andalusians, is simply the word Andaluz pronounced with the strong aspiration characteristic of the inhabitants of the province. C, z are seldom pronounced like i ; but a feature more peculiar to the Andalusians is the inverse process, the softened and interdental pronunciation of the i (the so-called ceceo) : zenor (senor), etc. Before a consonant and at the end of a word i becomes a simple aspiration: mihmo (mismo), Dioh (Dios), do reales (dos reales). In the inflexion of the verb there is nothing special to note, except some instances of 2nd pers. sing, of the perfect in tes for te: estuvistes, estuvites, for estuviste evidently a formation by analogy from the 2nd pers. of the other tenses, which all have s.
It is with the Andalusian dialect that we can most readily associate the varieties of Castilian which are spoken in South America. Here some of the most characteristic features of the language of the extreme south of Spain are reproduced either because the Castilian of America has spontaneously passed through the same phonetic transformations or because the Andalusian element, very strongly represented in colonization, succeeded in transporting its local habits of speech to the New World.
Leonese. Proceeding on inadequate indications, the existence of a Leonese dialect has been imprudently admitted in some quarters but the old kingdom of Leon cannot in any way be considered as constituting a linguistic domain with an individuality of its own The fact that a poem of the 13th century (the Alexandra), and certain redactions of the oldest Spanish code, the Fuero Juzgo, have a Leonese origin has been made top much of, and has led to a tendency to localize excessively certain features common to the whole western zone where the transition takes place from Castilian to Galician-Portuguese.
3. PORTUGUESE. Portuguese-Galician constitutes the second branch of the Latin of Spain. In it we must distinguish (1) Portuguese (Portuguez, perhaps a contraction from the old P0rtMga/ez = Portugalensis), the language of the kingdom of Portugal and its colonies in Africa, Asia and America (Brazil); (2) Galician (College), or the language of the old kingdom of Galicia (the modern provinces of Pontevedra, La Coruna, Orense, and Lugo) and of a portion of the old kingdom of Leon (the territory of Vierzo in the province of Leon). Portuguese, like Castilian, is a literary language, which for ages has served as the vehicle of the literature of the Portuguese nation constituted in the beginning of the 12th century. Galician, on the other hand, which began a literary life early in the middle ages for it was employed by Alfonso the Learned in his Cantigas in honour of the Virgin decayed in proportion as the monarchy of Castile and Leon, to which Galicia had been annexed, gathered force and unity in its southward conquest. At the present day Gallego, which is simply Portuguese variously modified and with a development in some respects arrested, is much less important than Catalan, not only because the Spaniards who speak it (1,800,000) are fewer than the Catalans (3,500,000), but also because, its literary culture having been early abandoned in favour of Castilian, it fell into the vegetative condition of a provincial patois. Speaking generally, Portuguese is further removed than Castilian from Latin; its development has gone further, and its actual forms are more worn out than those of the sister language, and hence it has, not without reason, been compared to French, with which it has some very notable analogies. But, on the other hand, Portuguese has remained more exclusively Latin in its vocabulary, and, particularly in its conjugation, it has managed to preserve several features which give it, as compared with Castilian, a highly archaic air. Old Portuguese, and more especially the poetic language of the 13th century, received from the language of the troubadours, in whose poetry the earlier Portuguese poets found much of their inspiration, certain words and certain turns of expression which have left upon it indelible traces.
Vowels. Lat. e, o with the accent have not been diphthongized into ic, uo, ue: pe (p e d e m), dez (d e c e m), bom (b o n u s), pode (p o t e t). On the other hand, Portuguese has a large number of strong diphthongs produced by the attraction of an i in hiatus or the resolution of an explosive into i : raiba (r a b i a), feira (f e r i a), feito (f a c t u m), seixo (s a x u m), oito (o c t o). A quite peculiar feature of the language occurs in the " nasal vowels," which are formed by the Latin accented vowels followed by m, n, or nt, ndbe (b e n e), gra (g r a n d e m), bo (b o n u m). These nasal vowels' enter into combination with a final atonic vowel : irmao (g e r m a- n u s) ; also amao (a m a n t), sermao (s e r m o n e m), where the o is a degenerated representative of the Latin final vowel. In Old Portuguese the nasal vowel or diphthong was not as now marked by the hi (~), but was expressed indifferently and without regard to the etymology by m or n: bem (bene), tan (t a n t u m), disserom (d i x e r u n t), sermom (s e r m o n e m). The Latin diphthong an is rendered in Portuguese by ou (ouro, a u r u m; pouco, p a u c u m), also pronounced oi. With regard to the atonic vowels, there is a tendency to reduce a into a vowel resembling the Fr. e " muet," to pronounce o as u, and to drop e after a group of consonants (dent for dente).
Consonants. Here the most remarkable feature, and that which most distinctly marks the wear and tear through which the language has passed, is the disappearance of the median consonants / and n coroa (c o r o n a), lua (1 u n a), par formerly peer (p o n e r e), conego (c a n o n i c u s), vir (v e n i r e), dor, formerly door (do 1 o r e m) pafo (p a 1 a t i u m), saude (s a 1 u t e m), pego (p e 1 a g u s). Lat. b passes regularly into v : cavallo (c a b a 1 1 u s), fava (fab a), arvore (a r b o r e m) ; but, on the other hand, Lat. initial v readily tends to become 6: bexiga (vesica), bodo (votum). Lat. initial / never becomes h : fazer (f a c e r e), filo (f i 1 u m). Lat. c before e and i is represented either by the hard sibilant s or by the soft z Lat. g between vowels is dropped before e and i: ler for leer (1 e- g e re), dedo (d i g i t u m) ; the same is the case with d, of course, in similar circumstances: remir (re di mere), rir (rid ere). Lat ] has assumed the sound of the French j. The Latin combinations a, fl, pi at the beginning of words are transformed in two ways in words of popular origin. Either the initial consonant is retained while the / is changed into r : cravo (c 1 a v u m), prazer (p 1 a c e r e), fror(i 1 o re m) ; or the group is changed in ch (-Fr. ch, Catal x) through the intermediate sounds kj, fj, pj: chamar (clamare), chao (p 1 a n u s), chamma (f 1 a m m a). Within the word the same group and other groups also in which the second consonant is an I produce / mouil!6e (written Ih, just as n mouillee is written nh as n I rovencal) : ovelha (o v i c' 1 a), velho (*v e c 1 u s) ; and sometimes Of.facho (f a c 1 u m), ancho (a m p 1 u m). Lat. ss or sc before e and t gives x (Fr. ch) : baixo (b a s s u s),faxa (fascia). The group ct is reduced to it : leito (I e c t u m), peito (p e c t u s), noite (n o c- t e m); sometimes to ut: douto (d o c t u s). Such words as fruto, reto, aileto are modern derivatives from the learned forms fructo.
recto, dilecto. Lat. cs becomes is: seis (sex); or isc, x ( = Fr. ich, ch) : seixo (s a x u m), Ittxo (1 u x u m) ; or even ss: disse (d i x i).
Inflexion. The Portuguese article, now reduced to the vocalic form o, a, os, as, was lo (exceptionally also el, which still survives in the expression El-Rei), la, los, las in the old language. Words ending in / in the singular lose the / in the plural (because it then becomes median, and so is dropped) : sol (sole m), but soes (soles); those having ao in the sing, form the plural either in aes or in des according to the etymology : thus coo (c a n e m) makes ca.es, but rac,ao makes rac_oes. As regards the pronoun, mention must be made of the non-etymological forms of the personal mint and of the feminine possessive minha, where the second n has been brought in by the initial nasal. Portuguese conjugation has more that is interesting. In the personal suffixes the forms of the 2nd pers. pi. in odes, edes, ides lost the d in the 15th century, and have now become ais, eis, is, through the intermediate forms aes, ees, eis. < The form in des has persisted only in those verbs where it was protected by the consonants n or r preceding it: pondes, tendes, vindes, amardes, and also no doubt in some forms of tne present of the imperative, where the theme has been reduced to an extraordinary degree by the disappearance of a consonant and the contraction of vowels: ides, credes, ledes, <etc. Portuguese is the only Romance language which possesses a personal or conjugated infinitive: amar, amar-es, amar, amar-mos, amar-des, amar-em; e.g. antes de sair-mos, " before we go out." Again, Portuguese alone has preserved the pluperfect in its original meaning, so that, for example, amara (a m a v e r a m) signifies not merely as elsewhere " I would love," but also " I had . loved." The future perfect, retained as in Castilian, has lost its vowel of inflexion in the 1st and 3rd pers. sing, and consequently becomes liable to be confounded with the infinitive (amar, render, partir). Portuguese, though less frequently than Castilian, employs ter (t e n e r e) as an auxiliary, alongside of aver; and it also supplements the use of e s s e r e with s e d e r e, which furnished the subj. seja, the imperative se, sede, the gerundive sendo, the participle sido, and some other tenses in the old language. Among the peculiarities of Portuguese conjugation may be mentioned (i) the assimilation of the 3rd pers. sing, to the 1st in strong perfects (houve, pude, quiz, fez), while Castilian has hube and hubo; (2) the imperfects punha, tinha, vinha (from par, ter and vir), which are accented on the radical in order to avoid the loss of the n (ponia would have made poia), and which substitute u and * for o and e in order to distinguish from the present subjunctive (ppnha, tenha, venha).
Galician. Almost all the phonetic features which distinguish Portuguese from Castilian are possessed by Gallego also. Portuguese and Galician even now are practically one language, and still more was this the case formerly: the identity of the two idioms would become still more obvious if the orthography employed by the Galicians were more strictly phonetic, and if certain transcriptions of sounds borrowed from the grammar of the official language (Castilian) did not veil the true pronunciation of the dialect. It is stated, for example, that Gallego does not possess nasal diphthongs; still it may be conceded once for all that such a word as p 1 a n u s, which in Galician is written sometimes chau and sometimes chan, cannot be very remote from the Portuguese nasal pronunciation chao. One of the most notable differences between normal Portuguese and Galician is the substitution of the surd spirant in place of the sonant spirant for the Lat..; before all vowels and e before e and i : xuez (j u d i c e m), Port, juiz; xunto (j u n c t u m), Port, junto; xente (g e n t e m), Port, genie. In conjugation the peculiarities of Gallego are more marked ; some find their explanation within the dialect itself, others seem to be due to Castilian influence. The 2nd persons plural have stili their old form odes, edes, ides, so that in this instance it would seem as if Gallego had been arrested in its progress while Portuguese had gone on progressing; but it is to be observed that with these full forms the grammarians admit contracted forms as well: ds (Port, ais), 6s (Port, eis), is (Port. is). The 1st pers. sing. of the perfect of conj ugations in er and ir has come to be complicated by a nasal resonance similar to that which we find in the Portuguese mim ; we have vendin, partin, instead of vendi, parti, and by analogy this form in in has extended itself also to the perfect of the conjugation in ar, and falin, gardin, for falei, gardei are found. The second persons of the same tense take the ending che, ches in the singular and chedes in the plural: falache or falaches (f a b u 1 a s t i), falachedes as well as faldstcdes (fabulastis), bateche or batiche, pi. batestes or batechedes, etc. Ti (t i b i) having given che in Galician, We see that falasti has become falache by a phonetic process. The 3rd pers. sing, of strong perfect is not in e as in Portuguese (houve, pode), but in o (houbo, puido, soubo, coubo, etc.); Castilian influence may be traceable here. If a contemporary grammarian, Saco Arce, is to be trusted, Gallego would form an absolute exception to the law of Spanish accentuation in the imperfect and pluperfect indicative: falab'dmos, falabddes; batidmos, batiddes; pididmos, pididdes; and falardmos, falarddes ; baterdmos, baterddes ; ptdirdmos,^ pidirddes. The future perfect indicative and the imperfect subjunctive, on the other hand, would seem to be accented regularly : faldremos. faldsemos. The important question is worth further study in detail.
BIBLIOGRAPHY. On the general subject the most important works are F. Diez, Grammalik der romanischen Sprachen (5th ed., Bonn, 1882) and Etymologisches Worterbuc h der romanischen Sprachen (4th ed., Bonn, 1878) ; W. Meyer-Lubke, Grammatik der romanischen Sprachen (Leipzig, 1890-1894); G. Korting, Lateinisch-romanisches Worterbuch (Paderborn, 1890-1891). See also A. Carnoy, Le Latin d'Espagne d'apres les inscriptions (2nd ed., Brussels, 1906). (i) CATALAN. A. Morel-Fatio, " Das Catalanische," in G. Grober's Grundriss der romanischen Philologie (1888); E. Vogel, " Neucatalanische Studien," in G. Korting's Neuphilologische Studien (Heft 5, 1886) ; M. Mila y Fontanals, De los Trovadores en Espana (Barcelona, 1861), and Estudios^ de lengua catalana (Barcelona, 1875); A. Mussafia's introduction to Die catalanische metrische Version der sieben weisen Meister (Vienna, 1876); A. Nonell y Mas, Andlisis de la llenga catalana antiga comparada ab la moderna (Manresa, 1895) ; J. P. Ballot y Torres, Gramatica y apologia de la llengua cathalana (Barcelona, 1815); A. de Bofarull, Estudios, sislema gramaticaly crestomatia de la lengua catalana (Barcelona, 1864); P. Fabra, Contribucio a la gramatica de la llengua catalana (Barcelona, 1898). For the Catalan dialect of Sardinia see G. Morosi, " 1'Odiernp dialetto catalano di Alghero in Sardegna," in the Miscellanea di filologia dedicata alia memoria dei Prof. Caix e Canello (Florence, 1885), and F. Romoni, Sardismi (Sassan, 1887). (2) CASTILIAN. Conde de la Vinaza, Biblioteca historica de la filologia castellana (Madrid, 1893); A. Bello, Gramatica. de la lengua Castellana (7th ed., with notes by R. J. Cuervo, Paris, 1902); R. J. 'Cuervo, Apuntaciones ritica ssobre el lenguaje bogotano (5th ed., Paris, 1907); G. Baist, " Die spanische Sprache," in G. Grober's Grundriss der romanischen Philologie; P. Forster, Spaniscke Sprachlehre (Berlin, 1880); E. Gorra, Lingua e letteratura spagnuola delle origini (Milan, 1898); R. Men6ndez Pidal, Manual elemental de gramatica historica espanola (Madrid, 1905); F. M. Josselyn, Etudes de phpnetique cspagnole (Paris, 1907); C. Michaelis, Studien zur romanischen Wortschopfung (Leipzig, 1876); A. Keller, Historische Formenlehre der spanischen Sprache (Murrhardt, 1894) ; P. de Mugica, Gramatica del castettano antiguo (Berlin, 1891) ; S. Padilla, Gramatica historica de la lengua castellana (Madrid, 1903) ; J. D. M. Ford, " The Old Spanish Sibilants " in Studies and Notes in Philology (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1900). For Asturian, see A. de Rato y HeVia, Vocabulario de las palabras yfrases que se hablan en Asturias (Madrid, 1891), and the Coleccion de poesias en dialecto asturiano (Oviedo, 1839); for Navarrese-Aragonese, see J. Borao, Diccionario de voces aragonesas (2nd ed., Saragossa, 1885); for Andalusian, the searching study of H. Schuchardt in the Zeitschriftfur romanische Philologie, vol. v. ; and for Leonese, R. Mendndez Pidal, " ( El Dialecto leonfo," in the Revista de archives, bibliotecas, y museos (Madrid, 1906). R. J. Cuervo's Apuntaciones (noted above) is the leading authority on American Spanish. The following publications may be consulted, but with caution: L. Abeille, Idioma nacional de los Argentines (Paris, 1900); D. Granada, Vocabulario rioplatense razonado (Montevideo, 1890); J. Fernandez Ferraz, Nahuatlismos de Costa Rica (San Jos<5, 1892) and C. Gagini, Diccionario de barbarismos de Costa Rica (San Jose, 1893); A. Membrefio, Hondurenismos (Tegucigalpa, 1897). See also C. C. Marden, The Phonology of the Spanish Dialect of Mexico City (Baltimore, 1896); J. Sanchez Somoano, Modismos, locuciones y terminos mexicanos (Madrid, 1892), and F. Ramos i Duarte, Diccionario de mejicanismos (Mexico, 1895) ; J. de Arona, Diccionario de peruanismos (Lima, 1883); J. Calcano, El Castellano en Venezuela (Caracas, 1897). (3) PORTUGUESE. J. Cornu, " Die portugiesische Sprache," in G. Grober's Grundriss der romanischen Philologie; F. A. Coelho, Theoria da conjuga$ao em latim e portuguez (Lisbon, 1871), and Questoes da lingua porlugueza (Oporto, 1874). For Galician, see A. Fernandez y Morales's Ensayos poeticos de berceiano (Leon, 1861) ; M. R. Rodriguez, Apuntes gramaiicales sobre el romance gallego de la cronica troyana (La Coruna, 1898), and Sacp Arce, Gramatica gallega (Lugo, 1868); for other dialectical varieties, see I. J. da Fonseca, Nofoes de philologia accomodadas & lingoa brasiliana (Rio de Janeiro, 1885) ; J. Leite de Vasconellos, Dialectos beires (Oporto, 1884), and Sur h dialecte portugais de Macao (Lisbon, 1892).
Important articles by many of the above writers, and by other philologists of note, will be found in Romania, the Zeitschrift fur romanische Philologie, the Revue des langues romanes, the Revista lusitana, the Revue hispanique, the Bulletin hispanique, Cultura espanola and the Archiv fur das Studium der neueren Sprachen.
(A. M.-FA.; J. F.-K.)
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)