SKELTON, JOHN (c. 1460-1529), English poet, is variously asserted to have belonged to a Cumberland family and to have been a native of Diss in Norfolk. He is said to have been which are membrane bones. The jaw joint therefore is between the quadrate and the articular. In comparing this description with the section on human embryology it will be seen that certain bones, like the palate and pterygoids, which in the fish are ossifications in cartilage, become in the higher vertebrates membrane bones, and so it is clear that too great stress must not be laid on the histological history of a bone in determining its morphological significance.
The branchial arches of the Teleostomi closely resemble those of the Elasmobranchii except that they are ossified and that the extrabranchials have disappeared.
In the Dipnoi (mudfish) the suspensorium is autostylic, and either five or six branchial arches are present. In the Amphibia, too, the suspensorium is autostylic, the palato-quadrate bar remains largely cartilaginous, though its posterior part is often ossified to form the quadrate. The membranous premaxilla, maxilla, palatine, pterygoid, quadratojugal and squamosal bones are developed in connexion with it, though it is interesting to notice that the pterygoid is sometimes partly cartilaginous and the quadrato-jugal is absent in the tailed forms (Urodela). In the lower jaw a splenial ^ element has appeared, and in the frog a cartilaginous mento-meckellian bone develops close to the symphysis. In the larval stages there are rudiments of four branchial arches behind the hyoid, but in the adult these are reduced in the Anura and their ventral ends are united into a broad basilingual plate.
Stylo-hyal. Epi-hyal. Cerato-hyal. Basihyal. Thyro-hyal.
Symphysis of mandible. Coronoid process. Condyle. Angle.
Inferior dental canal. The mandible is displaced down- educated at Oxford. He certainly studied at Cambridge, and ^1^*1 ?.!, he is P robabl y the " one Scheklton " mentioned by William Cole (MS.Athen. Cantabr.) as taking his M.A.degree in 1484. In 1490 Caxton writes of him, in the preface to The Boke ofEneydos compyled by Vyrgyle, in terms which prove that he had already won a reputation as a scholar. " But I pray mayster John Skelton," he says, " late created poete laureate in the unyversite of Oxenforde, to oversee and correct this sayd booke . . . for him I know for suffycyent to expowne and englysshe every dyffyculte that is therin. For he hath late translated the epystlys of Tulle, and the boke of dyodorus siculus, 1 and diverse other works ... in polysshed and ornate termes craftely ... I suppose he hath drunken of Elycons well." The laureateship referred to was a degree in rhetoric. Skelton received in 1493 the same honour at Cambridge, and also, it is said, at Louvain. He found a patron in the pious and learned countess of Richmond, Henry VII. 's mother, for whom he wrote Of Marines Lyfe the Peregrynacioun, a translation, now lost, of Guillaume de Deguilleville's Pelerinage de la vie humaine. An elegy " Of the death of the noble prince Kynge Edwarde the forth," included in some of the editions of the Mirror for Magistrates, and another (1489)
1 The MS. of this translation is preserved at Corpus Christ! College, Cambridge.
on the death of Henry Percy, fourth earl of Northumberland, are among his earliest poems. In the last decade of the century he was appointed tutor to Prince Henry (afterwards Henry VIII.) . He wrote for his pupil a lost Speculum principis, and Erasmus, in dedicating an ode to the prince in 1500, speaks of Skelton as " unum Britannicarum literarum lumen ac decus." In 1498 he was successively ordained sub-deacon, deacon and priest. He seems to have been imprisoned in 1502, but no reason is known for his disgrace. Two years later he retired from regular attendance at court to become rector of Diss, a benefice which he retained nominally till his death. Skelton frequently signed himself " regius orator " and poet-laureate, but there is no record of any emoluments paid in connexion with these dignities, although the Abbe du Resnel, author of Recherches sur les poetes couronnez, asserts that he had seen a patent (1513-1514) in which Skelton was appointed poet-laureate to Henry VIII. As rector of Diss he caused great scandal among his parishioners, who thought him, says Anthony a Wood, more fit for the stage than for the pew or the pulpit. He was secretly married to a woman who lived in his house, and he had earned the hatred of the Dominican monks by his fierce satire. Consequently he came under the formal censure of Richard Nix, the bishop of the diocese, and appears to have been temporarily suspended. After his death a collection of farcical tales, no doubt chiefly, if not entirely, apocryphal, gathered round his name The Merie Tales of Skelton. During the rest of the century he figured in the popular imagination as an incorrigible practical joker. His sarcastic wit made him some enemies, among them Sir Christopher Garnesche or Garneys, Alexander Barclay, William Lilly and the French scholar, Robert Gaguin (c. 1425-1502). With Garneys he engaged in a regular " flyting," undertaken, he says, at the king's command, but Skelton's four poems read as if the abuse in them were dictated by genuine anger. Earlier in his career he had found a friend and patron in Cardinal Wolsey, and the dedication to the cardinal of his Replycacion is couched in the most flattering terms. But in 1522, when Wolsey in his capacity of legate dissolved convocation at St Paul's, Skelton put in circulation the couplet: " Gentle Paul, laie doune thy sweard For Peter of Westminster hath shaven thy beard."
In Colyn Cloute he incidentally attacked Wolsey in a general satire on the clergy, but Speke, Parrot and Why come ye nat to Courte ? are direct and fierce invectives against the cardinal who is said to have more than once imprisoned the author. To avoid another arrest Skelton took sanctuary in Westminster Abbey. He was kindly received by the abbot, John Islip, who continued to protect him unt 1 '! his death on the 21st of June 1529. The inscription on his tomb in the neighbouring church of St Margaret's described him as vatcs pierius.
In his Garlande of Laurell Skelton gives a long list of his works, only a few of which are extant. The garland in question was worked for him in silks, gold and pearls by the ladies of the countess of Surrey at Sheriff Hutton Castle, where he was the guest of the duke of Norfolk. The composition includes complimentary verses to the various ladies concerned, and a good deal of information about himself. But it is as a satirist that Skelton merits attention. The Bowge of Court is directed against the vices and dangers of court life. He had already in his Bake of the Thre Poles drawn on Alexander Barclay's version of the Narrenschiff of Sebastian Brant, and this more elaborate and imaginative poem belongs to the same class. Skelton, falling into a dream at Harwich, sees a stately ship in the harbour called the Bowge of Court, 1 the owner of which is the Dame Saunce Pere. Her merchandise is Favour; the helmsman Fortune; and the poet, who figures as Drede (modesty), finds on board Favell (the flatterer), Suspect, Harvy Hafter (the clever thief), Dysdayne, RyoHe, Dyssymuler and Subtylte, who all explain themselves in turn, until at last Drede, who finds they are secretly .his enemies, is about to save his life by jumping overboard, when he wakes with a start. Both of these poems are written in the 1 Bowge Fr. bouche; court rations. The term is explained as the right to eat at the king's table.
seven-lined Chaucerian stanza, but it is in an irregular metre of his own that his most characteristic work was accomplished. The Bake of Phyllyp Sparowe, the lament of Jane Scroop, a schoolgirl in the Benedictine convent of Carowe near Norwich, for her dead bird, was no doubt inspired by Catullus. It is a poem of some 1400 lines and takes many liberties with the formularies of the church. The digressions are considerable. We learn what a wide reading Jane had in the romances of Charlemagne, of the Round Table, The Four Sons of Aymon and the Trojan cycle. Skelton finds space to give his opinion of Chaucer, Gower and Lydgate. He seems fully to have realized Chaucer's value as a master of the English language. Gower's matter was, he said, " worth gold," but his English he regarded as antiquated. The verse in which the poem is written, called from its inventor " Skeltonical," is here turned entirely to whimsical use. The lines are usually six-syllabled, but vary in length, and rhyme in groups of two, three, four and even more. It is not far removed from the old alliterative English verse, and well fitted to be chanted by the minstrels who had sung the old ballads. For its comic admixture of Latin Skelton had abundant example in French and Low Latin macaronic verse. He makes frequent use of Latin and French words to carry out his exacting system of frequently recurring rhymes. This breathless, voluble measure was in Skelton's energetic hands an admirable vehicle for invective, but it easily degenerated into doggerel. By the end of the 16th century he was a " rude rayling rimer " (Puttenham, Arte of English Poesie), and at the hands of Pope 2 and Warton he fared even worse. His own criticism is a just one :
" For though my ryme be ragged, Tattered and jagged, Rudely rayne beaten, Rusty and moughte eaten, It hath in it some pyth."
Colyn Cloute represents the average country man who gives his opinions on the state of the church. There is no more scathing indictment of the sins of the clergy before the Reformation. He exposes their greed, their ignorance, the ostentation of the bishops and the common practice of simony, but takes care to explain that his accusations do not include all and that he writes in defence of, not against, the church. He repeatedly hits at Wolsey even in this general satire, .but not directly. Speke, Parrot has only been preserved in a fragmentary form, and is exceedingly obscure. It was apparently composed at different times, but in the latter part of the composition he openly attacks Wolsey. In Why come ye nat to Courte? there is no attempt at disguise. The wonder is not that the author had to seek sanctuary, but that he had any opportunity of doing so. He rails at Wolsey's ostentation, at his almost royal authority, his overbearing manner to suitors high and low, and taunts him with his mean extraction. This scathing invective was not allowed to be printed in the cardinal's lifetime, but it was no doubt widely circulated in MS. and by repetition. The charge of coarseness regularly brought against Skelton is based chiefly on The Tunnynge of Elynoure Rummynge, a realistic description in the same metre of the drunken women who gathered at a well-known ale-house kept by Elynour Rummynge at Leatherhead, not far from the royal palace of Nonsuch. " Skelton Laureate against the Scottes " is a fierce song of triumph celebrating the victory of Flodden. " Jemmy is ded And closed in led, That was theyr owne Kynge," says the poem; but there was an earlier version written before the news of James IV.'s death had reached London. This, which is the earliest singly printed ballad in the language, was entitled A Ballade of the Scottysshe Kynge, and was rescued in 1878 from the wooden covers of a copy of Huon de Bordeaux. " Howe the douty Duke of Albany, lyke a cowarde knight " deals with the campaign of 1523, and contains a panegyric of Henry VIII. To this is attached an envoi to Wolsey, but it must surely have been 2 (Spence, Anecdotes, p. 87): Pope said: " Skelton's poems are all low and bad, there is nothing in them that is worth reading," and (in Satires and Epigrams, v. 38) " And beastly Skelton heads of houses quote."
misplaced, for both the satires on the cardinal are of earlier date.
Skelton also wrote three plays, only one of which survives. Magnificence is one of -the best examples of the morality play. It deals with the same topic as his satires, the evils of ambition ; its moral, " how suddenly worldly wealth doth decay," being a favourite one with him. Thomas Warton in his History of English Poetry described another piece Nigramansir, printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1 504, and dealing with simony and the love of money in the church; but no copy is known to exist, and some suspicion has been cast on Warton's statement.
Illustration of the hold Skelton had on the public imagination is supplied from the stage. A play (1600) called Scogan and Skelton, by Richard Hathway and William Rankins, is mentioned by Henslowe. In Anthony Munday's Downfall of Robert, earl of Huntingdon, Skelton acts the part of Friar Tuck, and Ben Jonson in his masque, The Fortunate Isles, introduced " Skogan and Skelton in like habits as they lived."
Very few of Skelton's productions are dated, and their titles are here necessarily abbreviated. Wynkyn de Worde printed the Bowge of Court twice. Diners Baletlys and dyties salacious devysed by Master Skelton Laureat, and Skelton Laureate agaynste a comely Coystroune. . . have no date or printer's name, but are evidently from the press of Richard Pynson, who also printed Replycacion against certain yong scoters, dedicated to Wolsey. The Garlande or Chapelet of Laurell was printed by Richard Faukes (1523); Magnificence, A goodly interlude , . . . probably by John Rastell about 1533, reprinted (1821) for the Roxburghe Club. Hereafter foloweth the Boke of Phyllyp Sparowe was printed by Richard Kele (1550 ?), Robert Toy, Antony Kitson (1560?), Abraham Veale (1570?), John Walley, John Wyght (1560?). Hereafter foloweth certaine bakes compyled by mayster Skelton . . . including " Speke, Parrot," " Ware the Hawke," " Elynoure Rummynge " and others, was printed by Richard Lant (1550?) , John King and Thomas March (1565 ?), by John Day (1560). Hereafter foloweth a litle boke called Colyn Cloute and Hereafter . . . why come ye nat to Courte ? were printed by Richard Kele (1550 ?) and in numerous subsequent editions. Pithy, plesaunt and profitable workes of maister Skelton, Poete Laureate. Nowe collected and newly published was printed in 1568, and reprinted in 1736. A scarce reprint of Elinour Rummin by Samuel Rand appeared in 1624.
See The Poetical Works of John Skelton; with Notes and some account of the author and his writings, by the Rev. Alexander Dyce (2 vols., 1843). A selection of his works was edited by W. H. Williams (London, 1902). See also Zur Charakteristik John Skeltons by Dr Arthur Koelbing (Stuttgart, 1904) ; F. Brie, " Skelton Studien " in Englische Studien, vol. 38 (Heilbronn, 1877, etc.); A. Rey, Skelton's Satirical Poems . . . (Berne, 1899); A. Thummel, Studien iiber John Skelton (Leipzig- Reudnitz, 1905) ; G. Saintsbury, Hist. ofEng. Prosody (vol. i., 1906) ; and A. Kolbing in the Cambridge History of English Literature (vol. iii., 1909).
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)