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Sewerage

SEWERAGE, a general term for the process of systematically collecting and removing the fouled water-supply of a community. The matter to be dealt.with may conveniently be classified as made up of three parts: (i) excreta, consisting of urine and faeces; (2) slop- water, or the discharge from sinks, basins, baths, etc., and the waste water of industrial processes; (3) surface water due to rainfall. Before the use of underground conduits became general, the second and third constituents were commonly allowed to sink into the neighbouring ground, or to find their way by surface channels to a watercourse or to the sea. The first constituent was conserved in middens or pits, either together with the dust, ashes, kitchen waste and solid waste generally or separately, and was carried away from time to time to be applied as manure to the land. In more modern times the pits in which excrement was collected took the form of covered tanks called cesspools, and with this modification the primitive system of conservancy, with occasional removal by carts, is still to be found in many towns. Even where the plan of removing excrement by sewers has been adopted, the kitchen waste, ashes and solid refuse is still treated by collecting it in pails or bins, whose contents are removed by carts either daily or at longer intervals, the refuse frequently being burned in destructors (<?..). It therefore forms no part of the nearly liquid sewage which the other constituents unite to form.

The first constituent is from an agricultural point of view the most valuable, and from a hygienic point of view the most dangerous, element of sewage. Even healthy excreta decompose, if kept for a short time after they are produced, and give rise to noxious gases; but a more serious danger proceeds from the fact that in certain cases of sickness these products are charged with specific germs of disease. Speedy removal or destruction of excremental sewage is therefore imperative. It may be removed in an unmixed state, either in pails or tanks or (with the aid of pneumatic pressure) by pipes; or it may be defaecated by mixture with dry earth or ashes; or, finally, it may be conveyed away in sewers by gravitation, after the addition of a relatively large volume of water. This last mode of disposal is termed the water-carriage system of sewerage. It is the plan now usually adopted in towns which have a sufficient water supply, and it is probably the mode which best meets the needs of any large community. The sewers which carry the diluted excreta serve also to take slop-water, and may or may not be used to remove the surface water due to rainfall. The watercarriage system has the disadvantage that much of the agricultural value of sewage is lost by its dilution, while the volume of foul matter to be disposed of is greatly increased.

I. COLLECTION OF SEWAGE. House drains, that is to say, those parts of the domestic system of drainage which extend from the soil-pipes and waste-pipes to the sewer, are generally made of glazed stoneware pipes having a diameter of 4 in., 6 in., or sometimes 9 or 12 in., according to the estimated amount of waste to be removed. In ordinary domestic dwellings there is rarely any occasion to use pipes of a greater B diameter than 6 in., and Vfllffllllliq ;;; llllKUdl/ this only for the main drain, * III! nil i, ' the branches and single lines of piping being 4 in. in dia- meter It is a good rule to FIG. i. Stoneware.

make the pipes and other fittings, such as channels and bends, as small in diameter as possible, having due regard to efficient capacity. Such a drain is more cleanly than one too large for its purpose, in that it is more thoroughly flushed when in use, the sewage running at a much faster speed through a full pipe than through one only partially full. For this reason a pipe having too great a capacity for the work it has to do is liable to become corroded by sediment deposited from slowly . moving waste.

The pipes are made in 2 ft. Vl|U(l{(Mlll(|| i,, . IKIIIIKllttf lengths and are formed with x 1 ill I in 1 1 V a socket at one end into which the straight end of the next pipe fits loosely. This is wedged in position FIG. 2. Stanford's Joint.

wjth a little gasket and the remaining space then carefully filled with neat Portland cement (fig. i). Pipes are made also with a bituminous substance in the socket and around the spigot end, and by merely pushing the one into the other the joint is made. The bitumen is curved to allow self-adjustment to any slight settlement, so that damage to the joint is avoided (fig. 2). A composite joint may be used having the bitumen lining reinforced with the ordinary Portland cement filling (fig. 3). This type is somewhat more expensive than the ordinary jointing, but it makes a powerful and effective connexion. The method of connecting two lead pipes by a " wiped solder joint " is shown in fig. 4. Fig. 5 shows the method of connect|-t?ftum<tn ing a lead pipe into the socket of a stoneware one, a bras.s sleeve piece or ferrule being used to give the necessary stiffness to the end of the lead pipe. This arrangement is frequently used, for example, at the base of a soil-pipe at its junction with the drain. In the next figure (fig. 6) the lead pipe has a brass socket \ ^ Stongwote, | irtong*vatg, FIG. 3. Composite Joint.

attached to it to take the plain end of a stoneware pip. This form of connexion is used between a water-closet and a lead trap. The joint shown in figs. 5 and 6 is similarly made when an iron pipe is substituted for a stoneware one, but instead of the Portland cement filling, molten lead is used and carefully caulked to form a watertight joint.

In the water-carriage system of drainage each house has its own network of drain-pipes laid under the ground, into which are taken the waste-pipes which lead from the closets, urinals, sinks, lavatory basins, and rain-water and other gulleys within and about the house. The many branches are gathered into one or more manholes, and connexion is finally made by means of a single pipe with the common public sewer. Gas from the sewer is prevented from entering the house drains by a disconnecting trap fixed in the manhole nearest the entrance to the sewer. The fundamental maxims of house sanitation are first, that there shall be complete disconnexion between the pipes within and without the house, and second, that the drainage shall be so constructed as to allow for the free admission of air in order to secure the thorough ventilation of all parts of the system FIG. 4. Lead-wiped Joint.

and avoid the possibility of the accumulation of gas in any of the waste- or drain-pipes. The drains must be planned to conduct the waste material from the premises as quickly as possible without leakage or deposit by the way. The pipes should be laid in straight lines from point to point to true gradients of between 2 to 4 in. in 10 ft. Junctions with branch pipes and any bends necessary should be gathered, as far as practicable, in inspection chambers fitted with open channels instead of closed pipes. This allows of easy inspection and testing, and provides means of access for the drain-rods in cases of blockage. Sometimes it is desired, for FIG ' 5--Lead into Stoneware, reasons of economy or otherwise, to avoid the use of a manhole at a change of direction in the drain. A branch pipe which may have a specially shaped junction for cleaning the pipes in both directions is taken up with a slope to the ground or floor level and there finished with an air-tight cover which may be removed to allow the introduction of drain-rods should the pipes become blocked. Junctions of one pipe with another should be made obliquely in the direction of the floor. Stoneware pipes should be laid upon a bed of concrete not less than 6 in. thick and benched up at the sides FIG. 6. Stoneware into Lead.

with concrete to prevent any movement. When such pipes pass under a building they should be entirely surrounded by a concrete casing at least 6 in. in thickness. No drain should lie under a building if it is possible to avoid it, for injury is very liable to occur through some slight settlement of the building, and in a position such that the smells escaping from the damaged pipe would rise up through the floor into the building this would be an especially serious matter. The expense and annoyance of having the ground opened up for the repair of defects in the pipes beneath is another strong argument against drains being placed under a house. Where this is really neces- FIG. 7. Iron Spigot and Socket Joint.

sary, however, pipes of castiron are recommended instead of the ordinary stoneware pipes, as being stronger; being made in lengths of 6 and 9 ft., they have a great advantage over the 2 ft. long stoneware tubes, for the joints of the latter are frequently a source of weakness. The joints, fewer in' number, are made with molten lead (fig. 7), or flanged pipes are used and the joints packed with rubber and bolted (fig. 8).

The principle of disconnexion adopted between the indoor and outdoor pipes should be retained between the latter and the sewer, and the domestic system should be cut off from the public drain by means of a disconnecting trap. This appli- Wiuummiilli FIG. 8.- -Iron-flanged Joint.

and Bolted ance is usually placed in a small chamber or manhole, easy of access for inspection, built close to the boundary of the premises, and as near as possible to the sewer into which the house drain discharges.

Fig. o shows a section and plan of such a manhole built in accordance with the London drainage by-laws. There are five inlets from branch drains discharging by specially-shaped glazed channels into the main channel in the centre. It will be seen that in case_of blockage it would be a simple matter to clear any of the pipes with the drain-rods. The cap to the clearing arm has a chain attached by which it can be removed in case of flooding. The channels are benched up at the sides with cement, and the manhole is rendered on the inside with a cement lining. A fresh air inlet is taken out near the top of the chamber and is fitted with a mica flap inlet valve. The cover is of cast-iron in a cast-iron frame shaped with grooves to afford a double seal, the grooves being filled with a composition of tallow and fine sand. Where there is a danger of a backflow from the sewer due to its becoming flooded, a hinged flap should be placed at the junction of drain and sewer to prevent sewage from entering the house drain. A ball trap designed for this purpose may be used in place of a flap, and is more satisfactory, for the latter is liable to become corroded and work stiffly. In the ball-trap appliance the flowing back of the sewage forces a copper ball to fit tightly against the drain outlet, the ball dropping out of the way of the flow directly the pressure is relaxed.

The water-carriage system of drainage is undoubtedly the most nearly perfect yet devised. At the same time it is a very g^. costly system to install with its network of sewers, closet's. pumping stations, and arrangements for depositing the sewage either in the sea or river, or upon the land or " sewage farm." In country districts and small towns and villages, however, excreta are often collected in small vessels and removed in tank carts and deposited upon the land. The dry-earth system introduced by the Rev. Henry Moule (1801- 1880) , and patented in 1 860, takes advantage of the oxidizing effect which a porous substance such as dry earth exerts by bringing any sewage with which it is mixed into intimate contact with the air contained in its pores. The system is of rather limited application from the fact that it leaves other constituents of sewage to be dealt with by other means. But so far as it goes it is excellent, and where there is no general system of watercarriage sewerage an earth-closet will in careful hands give perfect satisfaction. Numerous forms of earth-closet are sold in which a suitable quantity of earth is automatically thrown into the pan at each time of use (fig. 10), but a box filled with dry earth and a hand scoop will answer the purpose nearly as well. A plan much used in towns on the continent of Europe xxiv. 24 is to collect excrement in air-tight vaults which are emptied at intervals into a tank cart by a suction pump. Another pneumatic system adopted on the continent has the cesspools at individual houses permanently connected with a central reservoir by pipes through which the contents of the former are sucked by exhausting air from the reservoir at the central station.

door* FIG. 10. Ash or Earth-Closet.

Newly laid drains should be carefully tested before the trenches are _ . filled in to detect Testing anydefectsinthe """"* pipes or joints. These should be made good and the test again applied until the whole system is in perfect order. Cement joints should be allowed to set for at least fortyeight hours before the test is made. There are several methods of testing. For the stoneware drains laid under the ground the water test is generally adopted. After the lower end of the length of drain to be tested has been securely stopped (fig. ll) the drain is filled with water from its upper end until the desired pressure is obtained. To obtain the required head of water extra lengths of pipe are sometimes taken up temporarily at the upper end of the drain or, as an alternative, both ends of the pipe may be plugged and water introduced under pressure by a force pump through a small aperture provided in the plug. The exact pressure may then be ascertained by a water pressure gauge. An escape of water through some defective portion of the drain is indicated by the subsidence of the level of the water in the upper part of the drain or by a diminution of the pressure shown by the gauge. Then the defect must be located and remedied and the drain re-tested until all weak points are eliminated. This process must be repeated in each section of the drainage system until the whole is found to be sound and tight. It is not necessary to test drains laid with ordinary socket joints made in cement with a greater pressure than is obtained with a 5 ft. or 6 ft. head of water. A foot head of water gives at its base a pressure of -433 Ib per square inch, so that a head of 6 ft. would result in a pressure of just over 2j ft per square inch. Cast-iron drain-pipes with caulked lead joints will withstand a pressure of nearly 90 ft per square drain pipe.

FIG. II. Drain Stopper.

inch of internal surface, but in actual practice it is sufficient if they are tested with a pressure of 10 ft or say a head of 20 to 24 ft.

The atmospheric or air test is sometimes applied instead of the water test. The drain is plugged, as in the latter, and air is then pumped into the pipes until the desired pressure is registered by the gauge attached to the apparatus. This pressure should be maintained without appreciable diminution for a stipulated period before the drains are passed as sound.

The smoke test is generally used for testing vertical shafts such as soil-pipes and ventilators to which the water test cannot be conveniently applied owing to the excessive pressure produced at the lower portion of the pipe by the head of water. It is applied by stopping the ends of the pipes and introducing smoke by a drain rocket or by a smoke-producing machine which forces volumes of thick smoke through an aperture in the stopper. The pipes and joints are then carefully inspected for any evidence of leakage.

The scent test is occasionally employed for testing soil and ventilating pipes, but the apparatus must be carefully handled to avoid the material being spilt in the building and thus misleading the operator. The test is made by introducing into the drain some substance possessing a powerful odour such as oil of peppermint, calcium carbide or other suitable material, and tracing any defect by means of the escaping odour. This is not so effective a method as the smoke test, as there is more difficulty in locating leakages. Gulleys, traps and other similar fittings should be tested by pouring in water and observing whether siphonage or unsealing occurs. This of course will not happen if the appliances are of good design and_ properly ventilated. A section of a drain plug or stopper is shown in fig. 1 1 . It has a band of india-rubber which expands when the screw is turned and presses tightly against the inside of the drain-pipe. In the centre of the plug is a capped aperture which allows for smoke testing and also allows the water gradually to escape after a test by water.

Existing drains which have become defective and require to be made good must be exposed, taken up and relaid with new pipes, unless advantage be taken of a method which, it is claimed, renders it possible to make them permanently watertight so as to withstand the water test under pressure, and at the same time to disinfect them and the surrounding subsoil. This end is accomplished with the aid of patent machines which on being passed through the drain-pipe first remove all obstructions and accumulations of foul matter and then thoroughly cleanse and disinfect it, saturating the outside concrete and contaminated soil adjacent to any leak with strong disinfectants. Subsequently, loaded with the best Portland cement, another machine is passed through the drain, and, by powerful evenly-distributed circular compression, forces the cement into every hole, crack or crevice in the pipes and joints. This work leaves the inner surface of the pipes perfectly clean and smooth. After the usual time has been allowed for the cement to set the air test is applied, and the drain is claimed to be equal to, if not better than, a new drain, because the foundation is not disturbed by the process, and the risk of settlement, which is often the cause of leaky drains, is remote.

Every sanitary fitting should be trapped by a bend on the waste-pipe; this is generally made separately and fixed up near to the sink, Traps. c loset or basin, as the case may be. The traps of small wastes such as those of sinks and lavatories should be fitted with a brass screw cap to facilitate clearing when a stoppage occurs. Their object is to hold a quantity of water sufficient to prevent the access of foul air through the waste-pipe into the house. The depth of the water " seal " should not be less than 2 in., or it may become easily unsealed in hot weather through the evaporation of the water. Unsealing may be caused, too, by " siphonage," when a number of fittings are attached to the same main waste without the branches being properly ventilated just below each trap. The discharge from one fitting in this case would create a partial vacuum in the other branches and probably suck the sealing water from one or more of the traps. To obviate such an occurrence an " anti- siphonage " pipe is fixed having its upper end open to the air and provided with branches tapping such waste-pipe just below the trap. Then, with this contrivance, a discharge from any fitting, instead of causing air to be sucked in through the trap of another fitting, thereby breaking the seal and p._ .. c_ji allowing foul drain air to enter the house, merely Pirw with Anti draws the necessary air through theanti-siphpnage r>; pipe, leaving the other traps with their seals intact S1 phona g e Pipe. ft' I2) . f here are many forms of traps for use in different positions although the principle and purposes of all are identical. Two forms commonly used are known as the S and the P trap. The bell trap and the D trap are obsolete.

To collect the rain and waste water from areas, yards, laundry and other floors and similar positions an open trapped gulley is used. It is usually of stoneware and fitted with an open iron fiullcys. grating which admits the water (fig. 13). Many of these gulleys are made too shallow and speedily get choked if the water they receive is charged with mud or sand. To obviate this difficulty ..Tain welter FIG. 13. Gulley.

FIG. 14. Docking's Slipper Head.

the gulleys are made with a deep container and are often fitted with a perforated basket of galvanized iron which catches the solid matter and has a handle which allows for its easy removal when necessary. Gulleys with slipper or channel heads as shqwn in fig. 14 are required to be fitted in some districts to receive the waste from sinks. The warm waste water from scullery and pantry sinks contains much grease, and should discharge into a trapped gulley specially constructed to prevent the passage of the grease into the drain (fig. 15). It should be of ample size to contain sufficient cold water to solidify the fat which enters it. This forms in cakes on the top of the water and should be frequently broken up and removed.

Great attention has been directed to the design of sanitary fittings, with the object of making them as nearly self-cleansing as possible. In the fixing of closets the wood casings which used to be fixed around every water-closet are going steadily out of use, their place being taken by a hinged seat supported on metal brackets an arrangement which allows every part of the appliance to be readily cleaned with a cloth. In hospitals and similar institutions a form of closet is made fitted with lugs which are built into the wall ; in this way support is obtained without any assistance from the floor, which is left quite clear for sweeping.

FIG. 15. Stoneware Grease Trap.

Lavatory basins and sinks are also supported on cantilevers in the same way, and the wood enclosures which were formerly often fixed around these appliances are now generally omitted.

There are several distinct types of water-closets. Each type is made in many different patterns, both good and bad from a sanitary point of view, and, whatever the type decided upon, care is necessary in selecting to obtain one efficient and hygienic in shape and working. The principal kinds of closets now in use are the washdown, siphonic, valve, washout and hopper.

Washdown closets (fig. 16) are most commonly used. They are inexpensive to buy and to fix, and being made in one piece and simple in construction without any mechanical work ing parts are not liable to get out of order. When strongly made or protected by brick or concrete work they will stand very rough usage. The objection is sometimes raised with regard to washdown closets that they are noisy in action. This must be allowed with FIG. 16. Washdown.

many patterns, but some of the latest designs have been greatly improved in this respect, and when fitted with a silent flushing cistern are not open to this objection.

Siphonic closets (fig. 17) are a type of washdown in which the contents of the pan are removed by siphonic action, an after flush arrangement providing for the resealing of the trap. They are practically silent in action and with a flush of three gallons work very satisfactorily. Where the restrictions of the water company require the usual two gallon flush the ordinary washdown pan should be used.

Valve closets (fig. 18) are considered by many authorities on sanitation to be preferable to all other types. For domestic buildings, FIG. 17. Siphonic Washdown.

FIG. 18. Valve.

hotels, and where not subjected to the hardest wear, they are undoubtedly of great value. They should have a three gallon flush, and on this account they cannot be used in many districts owing tr the water companies' regulations stipulating that a flush of not mon than two gallons may be used.

The washout closet (fig. 19) is a type that never attained muc popularity as it has been found by practical experience to be unsanitary and objectionable. The standing water is too shallow, and the receiving basin checks the force of the flush and the trap is therefore frequently imperfectly cleared.

Hopper closets are of two kinds the long hopper and the short hopper. These are the forerunners of the washdown closet which the short hopper pan resembles, but instead of pan and trap being made in one piece the fitting consists of a fireclay or stoneware hopper, with straight sloping FIG. 19. Washout.

sides and central outlet jointed to a trap of lead or other material. The joint should be placed so as to be always kept under water by the seal of the trap. The long hopper pan is a most objectionable type of closet which should be rigorously avpided-as it easily becomes foul and is most insanitary. In most districts its use is prohibited. A water- waste preventer is a small tank fixed usually 4 or 5 ft. above a closet or urinal and connected therewith by a flushing pipe of ii in. or greater internal diameter. This tank usually contains a siphon, and the flush is actuated by pulling a chain which admits water to the siphon; the contents are then discharged with some force down the flushing pipe into the pan of the closet, clearing out its contents and replacing the fouled water with clean. The flushing tank is automatically refilled with water by a valve fitted with a copper ball which rising on the surface of the incoming water shuts off the flow when the tank is full. Fig. 20 is a sectional drawing of one of the latest patterns and clearly shows its construction. The water-supply is shown near the top with the regulating ball valve attached. An overflow is provided and a pipe is led from this to an external outlet. The capacity of the ordinary domestic flushing cistern is two gallons, which is the maximum quantity allowed by most water companies. A three gallon flush is much better, however, and where this larger quantity is allowed should be adopted. Larger tanks for ranges of closets or urinals are often made to flush automatically when full, and for these the rate of water supply may be FIG. 20. Water- Waste Preventer for flushing W.C.'s. V fast or very slow as desired, for the siphons are so constructed that even a drop-by-drop supply will start a full flush.

The by-laws of the London County Council contain very full regulations respecting the construction and fitting up of waterclosets. These may be summarized as follows: A watercloset or urinal must be furnished with an adequate flushing cistern distinct from any cistern used for drinking ** water. The service pipe shall lead to the flushing cistern and not to any other part of the closet. The pipe connecting the cistern with the pan shall have a diameter of not less than I \ in. in any part. The apparatus for the application of water to the apparatus must provide for the effectual flushing and cleansing of trie pan, and the prompt and effectual removal therefrom, and from the trap connected therewith of all solid and liquid filth. The pan or basin shall be of non-absorbent material, of such shape, capacity and construction as to contain a sufficient quantity of water and to allow all filth to fall free of the sides directly into the water. No " container" or similar fitting shall be fixed under the pan. There shall be fixed immediately beneath or in connexion with the pan an efficient siphon trap constructed to maintain a sufficient water seal between the pan and the drain or soil pipe. No D trap or other similar trap is to be connected with the apparatus. If more than one water-closet is connected with a soil-pipe the trap of each closet shall be ventilated into the open air at a point as high as the top of the soil-pipe, or into a soil-pipe above the highest closet. This ventilating (or anti-shiphonage) pipe shall be not less than 2 in. in diameter, and connected at a point not less than 3 and not more than 12 in. from the highest part of the trap (fig. 12).

Baths may be made of many different materials; copper, castiron, zinc and porcelain are those most generally employed. Metal _ . baths have the great advantage of becoming hot with the water, while baths of porcelain, stoneware and marble, which are bad conductors of heat, impart to the user a sense of chilliness even though the water in the bath be hot. Copper baths are best ; they may be finished on the inside by tinning, enamelling or nickel plating. Iron baths, usually tapering in shape, are very popular and are usually finished in enamel, but sometimes tinned. Fig. 21 illustrates a good type of cast-iron bath with standing waste. A good feature of this bath lies in the fact that all parts are accessible and easily cleaned. Porcelain baths are cumbersome and take a long time to heat, but they are often used for public baths. The practice of enclosing the bath with a wood casing is fast dying out; it is insanitary in that it harbours dust and vermin. Baths are now usually elevated upon short legs, so that every part of them and of the adjacent floor and wall is accessible for cleaning.

Fig. 22 is a section of a good type of scullery sink, and shows the waste and trap with brass clearing cap. The fitting is supported upon galvanized iron cantilever brackets which are built into the wall.

Like closets, urinals have undergone much improvement in design and manufacture. The best types are of glazed ware, and have vertical curved backs and sides about 4 ft. high with a Urtaals. flushing rim round the top and terminating in a base discharging into an open glazed channel waste, which, in the case of a range of urinals, collects the discharge from all and conveys it into , Poor FIG. 21. Bath, with Standing Waste.

a trapped gulley at one end of the range. This is the type usually fixed in street conveniences and similar positions. Plate and iron urinals are often fixed, but there is more difficulty in keeping them clean on account of the sharp angle and the unsuitabihty of the material. Urinals are seldom fixed in private houses or offices, an ordinary washdown pedestal closet with hinged " tip-up" seat serving every purpose. Such seats are often fitted with balance weights to cause them to lift automatically when not in use as a closet. Unless kept very clean and well flushed with water, urinals are liable to become a nuisance.

In London among other towns the system of drainage is a " combined " one, that is, the storm water and the domestic sewage and waste is all collected in one sewer. For many reasons it is more satisfactory to have the two drains quite separate. In many districts this is done, but it entails the provision of a double system of drainage for each house, one drain being provided for rain-water, the other for sewage. Where combined drainage is installed an excess of water poured into the sewers during a storm often results in back flow and the flooding of basements and cellars with sewage. Such an occurrence might take place where there is a separate sewer for the storm water, but in this case the flooding would be with comparatively harmless rain-water instead of sewage and filth.

Figs. 23 and 24 show two FIG. 22. Sink, ground plans of the same house, a semi-detached suburban residence, one with combined drainage and the other with separate drains for storm water and sewage. In both figures the rain-water drains are shown in a dotted line, and other drains in a full line.

In fig. 23, A is a 4 in. cast-iron rain-water down-pipe. B is a 4 in. ventilating-pipe taken up to a point above the building. C is a trapped gulley such as is shown in fig. 13. D is a gulley with channel head (fig. 14) into which are taken the discharges from the scullery sink on the ground floor, and from the bath and lavatory on the first floor. E is an untrapped manhole, with open channel bends and sealed cast-iron cover, from which any branch of the drains can easily be cleared by the use of drain-rods. F is a soil-pipe from a water-closet on the first floor, and is carried up above the roof to serve as a ventilator. G is a trapped gulley as fig. 13, taking the discharge from the rain-water pipe over it and serving also to drain the yard; H and J are similar gulleys. K is a manhole with trap for intercepting the foul gases from the sewer and preventing them from entering the house drains. The manhole is fitted with a sealed cast-iron cover and has an inlet at L with mica flap valve to admit fresh air to the drains; in construction it is similar to the one shown in fig. 9, but has only two branches entering it instead of five. In fig. 24, A is a rain-water pipe discharging to the gulley B, which is untrapped to allow of the ventilation of the branch C-B. C is a length of piping brought up to the surface of the ground and finished with a cap, which is removed when it is found necessary to clear away any obstruction. A special shaped junction here allows the rods to be pushed up either branch as required. D and E are trapped gulleys as already described. F is an untrapped gulley serving to ventilate the drain. G, H and J the same as for fig. 23. K is a pair of manholes built side by side, one for storm water and the other for sewage. Both are fitted with intercepting traps, and the sewage chamber is ventilated by an air inlet at L as in fig. 23. The cover of the storm water manhole need not be sealed, and if necessary could be fitted with a grating and be used to drain the forecourt.

The London by-laws regulating drainage are very full and are strictly enforced. They include requirements regarding the size, _ form, gradient and methods of construction and repair of Drainage ( j r j t ; nS) together with regulations affecting the design and fixing of traps, fittings and other apparatus connected with sanitary arrangements. Some of the headings of the different clauses of the by-laws are subjoined: water-closets; earth-closets; drainage of subsoil; drainage of surface water; rain-water pipes; materials, etc., for drains; size of drains; drain to be laid on bed of concrete 6 in. thick; if under buildings to be encased with 6 in. of concrete; drain to be benched up with concrete to half its diameter; fall of drain ; joints of drain ; drain to be water-tight ; thickness and weight of iron pipes; thickness of sockets and joints of stoneware pipes; drains under buildings; composition of concrete; every inlet to drain to be trapped ; drain beneath wall to be protected by arch, flagstone, or iron lintel; drain connected with sewer to be trapped and means of access to trap provided; no right-angled junctions to be formed either vertical or horizontal; at least two untrapped openings to be provided for ventilation, each fitted with a grating or cowl with apertures for passage of air equal in area to that FIG. 23. " Combined " System. fie. 24. " Separate " System.

of the pipe to which it is fitted ; ventilating shafts to be at least A in. in diameter, and if possible all bends and angles to be avoided; ventilating shafts to be of the same material, construction and weight as soil-pipes; no unnecessary inlets to drains to be made within buildings; waste-pipes from sinks and lavatories to be of lead, iron or stoneware, trapped immediately beneath the fitting; bell traps, dip traps and D traps are prohibited ; waste-pipes to discharge in the open air into a properly trapped gulley ; soil-pipes wherever practicable to be situate outside the building and to be of drawn lead or heavy cast-iron; if fixed internally the pipes to be of lead with wiped joints; iron pipes to have socket joints not less than 2| in. in depth and to be made with molten lead or flanged joints securely bolted with some suitable insertion; the soil-pipe not to be connected with any rain-water or waste-pipe, and no trap to be placed between the soil-pipe and the drain ; the soil-pipe to be circular with an internal diameter of not less than 3 J in., and to be taken up above the building and its end left open as an outlet for foul air ; methods of connecting a lead pipe with an iron one; connexion of stoneware and lead, connexion of iron and stoneware; ventilation of trap of water-closet with an anti-siphonage pipe of not less than 2 in. diameter and ventilated into the open air or into the soil-pipe at a point above the highest fitting on the soil-pipe; construction of slop sinks and urinals.

The by-laws respecting health and building in New York City are embodied in a large number of clauses. The more detailed health regulations are found in the Sanitary Code 1903. These are by-laws framed by the Board of Health under the authority of section 1172 of the New York Charter 1897. These must be taken in conjunction with the statute bearing on plumbing in New York City which was made by the Department of Buildings, 1896, and to which there have been several small amendments. Section 141 of the Building Code also deals with sanitation and in the Tenement House Act 1901, 1902, 1903, chap. 4, sees. 91 to 100 inclusive, deals with sanitary matters. From a general point of view the requirements of the American by-laws as to materials and methods of construction vary in a very slight degree from those in force under the London authorities. It is in the regulations affecting the execution of the work that we find a great difference, and these in New York are of a more stringent character than in any other capital. Thus no sanitary, plumbing or lighting work may be undertaken without first submitting for approval to the Department of Buildings complete and suitable drawings and particulars of the materials to be used. Such a notice is necessary even in the case of repairs and alterations to existing work. As a further guarantee of the work being satisfactory it is ordained that no such work shall be executed except under the superintendence of a registered plumber. Every master plumber in the city of New York or others working therein as such must obtain a certificate of competency from the Examination Board and be registered afresh every year during the month of March, as without such certificate or licence no work can be undertaken; any person violating such requirements shall upon conviction be fined for each offence $250 or undergo three months' imprisonment or both, while in the case of any certificated plumber or his employes wilfully breaking, with his knowledge, any of the rules and regulations relating to drainage and plumbing, the certificate of the master is to be forfeited in addition to the aforementioned fine.

II. CONVEYANCE OF SEWAGE. For small sewers, circular pipes of glazed stoneware or of moulded cement are used, from 6 in. to 18 in. and even 20 in. in diameter. The pipes are made in short lengths, and are usually jointed by passing the end or spigot of one into the socket or faucet of the next. Into the space between the spigot and faucet a ring of gasket or tarred hemp should be forced, and the rest of the space filled up with cement. Other methods of jointing have already been described and illustrated. The pipes are laid with the spigot ends pointing in the direction of the flow, with a uniform gradient, and, where practicable, in straight lines. In special positions, as under the bed of a stream, castiron pipes are used for the conveyance of sewage. Where the capacity of an i8-in. circular pipe would be insufficient, built sewers are used in place of stoneware pipes. These are sometimes circular or oval, but more commonly of an egg-shaped section, the invert or lower side of the sewer being a curve of shorter radius than the arch or upper side. The ,ewcn. advantage of this form lies in the fact that great variations in the volume of flow must be expected, and the eggsection presents for the small or dry-weather flow a narrower channel than would be presented by a circular sewer of the same total capacity. Figs. 25 and 26 show two common forms FIGS. 25 and 26. Forms of Sewer.

of egg-sections, with dimensions expressed in terms of the diameter of the arch. Fig. 26 is the more modern form, and has the advantage of a sharper invert. The ratio of width to height is 2 to 3.

Built sewers are most commonly made of bricks, moulded to suit the curved structure of which they are to form part. Separate invert blocks of glazed earthenware, terra-cotta or fire-clay are often used in combination with brickwork. The bricks are laid over a templet made to the section of the sewer, and are grouted with cement. The thickness of brickwork for sewers over 3 ft. in diameter should not be less than 9 in., but for smaller sewers laid in good ground at depths not exceeding 20 ft. from the surface a thickness of 4! in. will suffice if well backed up with concrete. The thickness of brickwork for a sewer of any size may be determined in feet by the formula dr/ioo, where d = depth of excavation in feet and r = external radius in feet.

An egg-shaped sewer, made with two thicknesses of brick, an invert block, and a concrete setting, is illustrated in fig. 27.

Concrete is largely used in the construction of sewers, either in combination with brickwork or alone. For this purpose the concrete consists of from 5 to 7 parts of sand and gravel or broken stone to i of Portland cement. It may be used as a cradle for or as a backing to a brick ring, or as the sole material of construction by running it into position round a mould which is removed when the concrete is sufficiently set, the inner surface of the sewer being in this case coated with a FIG. 27 .-Bnck Sewer. thin B layer o{ cement . A deV el O p- ment in the construction of concrete sewers, whether laid in sectional pipes or constructed and moulded in situ, is the use of iron or steel bars and wires embedded in the material as a reinforcement. Such conduits can be constructed of any size and designed to withstand high pressures. Fig. 28 is a section of a concrete sewer having a diameter of more than 9 ft. constructed with round rod reinforcement. With regard to the method for calculating the proportions, generally speaking the thickness of the concrete shell should in no place be less than one-twelfth of the greatest internal diameter of the tube, while the steel reinforcement should be designed to resist the whole of the tensile stress. 5^'lhick Where the safe tensile stress in the steel is 8 tons per sq. in. P = the pressure in pounds per sq. in., and r = the internal radius in inches; the weight of the reFIG. 28. Reinforced Concrete Sewer. Section, inforcement per sq. ft = Pr/45o, while its area at each side of the pipe per longitudinal foot, when /=safe tensile stress in the reinforcement in pounds, is Dl en. ".

sewers In determining the dimensions of sewers, the amount of sewage proper may be taken as equal to the water supply (generally about 9 gallons P 61 " nea ^ P 61 " diem), and to this must be added (when the " combined " system is adopted) an allowance * or tne sur f ace water due to rainfall. The latter, which is generally by far the larger constituent, is to be estimated from the maximum rate of rainfall for the district and from the area and character of the surface. In the sewerage of Berlin, for example, the maximum rainfall allowed for is f of an inch per hour, of which one-third is supposed to enter the sewers. In any estimate of the size of sewers based on rainfall account must of course be taken of the relief provided by storm-overflows, and also of the capacity of the sewers to become simply charged with water during the short time to which very heavy showers are invariably limited. Rainfall at the rate of 5 or 6 in. per hour has been known to occur for a few minutes, but it is unnecessary to provide (even above storm-overflows) sewers capable of discharging any such amount as this; the time taken by sewers of more moderate size to fill would of itself prevent the discharge from them trpm reaching a condition of steady flow; and, apart from this, the risk of damage by such an exceptional fall would not warrant so great an initial expenditure. Engineers differ widely in their estimates of the allowance to be made for the discharge of surface water, and no rule can be laid down which would be of general application.

In order that sewers should be self-cleansing, the mean velocity of flow should be not less than 2\ ft. per second. The gradient necessary to secure this is calculated on principles which are stated in the article HYDRAULICS (g..). The velocity of flow, V, is . , Velocity oi where i is the inclination, or ratio of vertical to horizontal discharge. distance; m is the " hydraulic mean depth," or the ratio of area of section of the stream to the wetted perimeter; and c is a coefficient depending on the dimensions and the roughness of the channel and the depth of the stream. A table of values of c will be Found in 98 of the article referred to. This velocity multiplied by the area of the stream gives the rate of discharge. Tables to facilitate the determination of velocity and discharge in sewers of various dimensions, forms and gradients will be found in Latham's and other practical treatises.

Where the contour of the ground does not admit of _a sufficient gradient from the gathering ground to the place of destination, the sewage must be pumped to a nigher level at one or more laterpoints in its course. To minimize this necessity, and also ceatioa lor other reasons, it is frequently desirable not to gather sewers. sewage from the whole area into a single main, but to collect the sewage of higher portions of the town by a separate highlevel or interception sewer.

It is undoubtedly necessary to construct overflows for storm water in connexion with combined systems of sewerage. No combined sewer of such size as will make it comparatively gtonnself-cleansing under normal conditions can hope to carry water off the volume of water resulting from heavy rain. It over a ows . might be thought that the overflow reulting from a _ storm would consist of nearly pure rain-water, but this is not the case, as the pressure of storm water has the effect of scouring out from the sewers a great deal of foul matter that is deposited when the flow is small. This being the case it is obviously bad policy to take the overflow into a stream, which would thereby suffer contamination. A better plan is to direct the discharge into a dry ditch or channel where the liquid may soak into the soil and the solid particles by contact with the air may quickly become oxidized. In agricultural districts it might be possible by arrangement with farmers to run the overflow over grass-land, as it has good manurial properties.

Occasionally when a sewer has to cross a stream or other obstruction it is found impossible to bridge or carry the pipe across and preserve its proper gradient. In such cases it must be i av erted carried under the obstruction by means of an inverted siphons, siphon. | The exact form that should be given to inverted siphons is disputed, but it is generally agreed that they are expedients to be avoided wherever possible. The majority take roughly the form of the stream section, that is, they have two sloping pieces corresponding with the banks with a flat cross-piece under the bed of the stream. The pipes are invariably of iron and should be laid in duplicate, as they are liable to silt up in the flat length. For this reason it is usual in constructing a siphon to place permanent chains in the pipes, and these are periodically pulled backward and forward to stir up the silt. Brushes may also be attached to the chains and pulled through from end to end. At either end of the siphon pipes there are manholes into which the pipes are built. Penstock valves also should be provided at each end so that sewage can be shut out of one or both of the siphons as desired for clearing purposes.

Tumbling bays being prohibited, the usual method of leading a high-level sewer into a low-level sewer is by means of a ramp. This is constructed in connexion with a manhole into which the end of the high-level sewer is taken and finished usually with a flap valve. Some distance back along this sewer a wide-throated junction is put in the invert of the sewer, and from this junction a ramp-pipe is taken down to the invert of the low-level sewer, so that the sewage in the upper sewer instead of having a direct_ fall runs down the slope of the ramp. The ramp-pipe is usually constructed of iron and is of smaller section than the high-level sewer because of the greater fall and pressure.

In the low-lying parts of towns storage tanks are often constructed to receive the sewage of such districts. They are periodically emptied of their contents, which are pumped up into the main sewers through which the sewage travels to the outfall. This storing of sewage should be avoided whenever possible. It is much better to provide for raising it as it is produced either by an installation of one or more automatic lifts, such as Adams's sewage lifts, or, where a large amount of material is to be dealt with, necessitating continual pumping, by a Shone ejector worked by compressed air.

Sewer gas is a term applied to the air, fouled by mixture with gases which are formed by the decomposition of sewage, and by the organic germs which it carries in suspension, that fills the sewer in the variable space above the liquid stream. It is universally recognized that sewer gas is a medium for the conveyance of disease, and in all well-designed systems of sewerage stringent precautions are taken to keep it out of houses. It is equally certain that the dangerous character of sewer gas is reduced, if not entirely removed, by free admixture with the oxygen of fresh air. Sewers should be liberally ventilated, not Connexion between high- and low-level Ventilation of only for this reason, but to prevent the air within them from ever having its pressure raised (by sudden influx of water) so considerably as to force the " traps " which separate it from the atmosphere of dwellings. The plan of ventilation now most approved is the very simple one of making openings from the sewer to the surface of the street at short distances generally shafts built of brick and cement and covering these with metallic gratings. Under each grating it is usual to hang a box or tray to catch any stones or dirt that may fall through from the street, but the passage of air to and from the sewer is left as free as possible. The openings to the street are frequently made large enough to allow a man to go down to examine or clean the sewers, and are then called " manholes." Smaller openings, large enough to allow a lamp to be lowered for purposes of inspection, are called " lampholes," and are often built up of vertical lengths of drain-pipe, 6 jn. or 9 in. in diameter, and finished at the surface with a cover similar to that used for a manhole but smaller. A length of 150 ft. of pipe sewer is about the limit that can be sighted through. Lampholes are mostly used in the_construction of pipe and other small sewers.

To facilitate inspection and cleaning, sewers are, as far as possible, laid in straight lines of uniform gradient, with a manhole or lamphole at each change of direction or of slope and at each junction ag of mains with one another or with branches. The sewers may advantageously be stepped here and there at manholes. Sir R. Rawlinson pointed out that a difference of level between the entrance and exit pipes tends to prevent continuous flow of sewer gas towards the higher parts of the system, and makes the ventilation of each section more independent and thorough. When the gradient is slight, and the dry-weather flow very small, occasional flushing must be resorted to. Flap valves or sliding penstocks are introduced at manholes; by closing these for a short time sewage (or clean wate_r introduced for the purpose) is dammed up behind the valve either in higher parts of the sewer or in a special flushing chamber, and is then allowed to advance with a rush. Many self-acting arrangements for flushing have been devised which act by allowing a continuous stream of comparatively small volume to accumulate in a tank that discharges itself suddenly when full. A valuable contrivance of this kind is Rogers Field's siphon flush tank. When the liquid in the tank accumulates so that it reaches the top of the annular siphon, and begins to flow over the lip, it carries with it enough air to produce a partial vacuum in the tube. The siphon then bursts into action, and a rapid discharge takes place, which continues till the water-level sinks to the foot of the bellshaped cover. Adams's " Monster Flusher " is constructed on similar principles and is of simple and strong design. Its flushingpower is claimed to be greater than that of the ordinary siphon. By the use of this appliance, which is automatic in action, shallow sewers can be effectively flushed. Fig. 29 is a section of a flushing chamber fitted with this siphon. Such flushing apparatus may be operated by a water-s upply from an ordinary tap which may be regulated for a large or small flow. The capacity of flush tanks is a little difficult to deterAs a rule FIG. 29. Flushing Chamber for Shallow Sewers.

mine. As a 250 to 400 gallons are allowed for 9-in. sewers, 400 to 600 gallons for 12-in., and 600 to 800 gallons for 15-in. sewers, the amount increasing by 200 gallons for each 3-in. additional diameter.

III. DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE.* The composition of domestic sewage is now fairly well known and is generally reduced for the purposes of comparison to a standard; that is to say, ordinary sewage is that due to a water-supply of about 30 gallons per head per diem. If the supply is less, and there is no leakage of subsoil water into the drainage system, the sewage will be stronger; conversely, if there is leakage, etc., the sewage will be more dilute, but obviously, the quantity of impurities will, for any given population, be the same in amount. The subjoined table shows the kind of sewage referred to:

Average Domestic Sewage, in Grains per Gallon.

Total Solids in Solution.

Organic Carbon.

Organic Nitrogen.

Ammonia.

Chlorine.

Suspended.

Mineral.

Organic.

Total Combined Nitrogen.

50-54 3-287 1-543 4-70 7-46 16-92 14-36 5-41 For all practical purposes we may say that average sewage contains two tons of suspended matters in each million gallons, one-half of which is mineral matter. When, however, we come to a consideration of trade waste, the question becomes difficult in the extreme, because of the great variety of trades, and the ever varying quantities added to the sewage. Some of the principal trade wastes are from dye-works, print-works, bleach-works, chemical works, tanneries, breweries, paper-makers, woollenworks, silk-works, iron-works and many others. In some cases one only of these trade wastes finds its way to the sewers; in others, several of them may be found. In some instances, again, these trade wastes are of an alkaline nature, in others they are acid; the mixtures may be either, and of greatly varying character. Next comes the manner in which sewage is discharged at the works. The flow is variable throughout the entire 24 hours, but in the case of sewers discharging domestic sewage only, such sewage being of the standard strength, it will be a close approximation to the facts to say that about two-thirds is discharged between the hours of 7 A.M. and 7 P.M., one-half during the eight hours of maximum flow, two-fifths during the six hours of maximum flow, and about 7!% per hour during the two hours of maximum flow. These data will be sufficient for the design of the works intended for dealing with the sewage. Separate calculations must be made if there is trade refuse, or much leakage of subsoil water. In very large systems, again, the maxima are rather less because of the time occupied by the sewage in travelling to the outfall from the more remote parts of the district. In cases where one set of sewers is employed for both sewage and rainfall the sewage flow may be increased more than a hundredfold within a few minutes by heavy rainstorms. Of course the sewage disposal works can only deal with a small proportion of such flow, and the balance is discharged into some convenient water-course or other suitable place. Even when the separate system is employed, as in the case of the smaller towns, the flow may be increased ten to fifteen times by rain, because it is unusual to carry two sets of drains to the backs of the houses. In designing outfall works, therefore, all these circumstances must be carefully considered. Again, when the sewage is pumped, as is frequently the case, the size of the tanks must often be increased, because in the smaller installations the whole of the day's sewage is frequently pumped out in a few hours; this fact must also be remembered when designing filters.

Nearly every town upon the coast turns its sewage into the sea. That the sea has a purifying effect is obvious. The object to be attained is its dispersion in a large volume of sea-water. As it is lighter than salt water it tends to rise after leaving the sewer; the outfall should, therefore, if practicable, terminate in deep water, so that the two liquids may become well mixed. The currents must be studied by means of floats, and in most cases the sewage must be discharged upon the ebb tide only, and then perhaps not throughout the entire period, the object being to prevent it from being carried towards the shore. That the purification is effected mainly by means of living organisms is well established, and it has been urged by competent authorities that this system is not wasteful, since the organic matter forms the food of the lower organisms, which in turn are devoured by fish. Thus the sea is richer, if the land is the poorer, by the adoption of this cleanly method of disposal. The next step is the partial purification of the sewage by means of a chemical process. When a town lies some distance up an estuary, as for example London, Glasgow, Rochester and many others, the dilution may be insufficient to prevent a nuisance, or the suspended matters may be deposited upon the foreshore to be uncovered at low water. The first stage of purification is then employed, namely, clarification in tanks. Practice varies with regard to tank capacity, but as a general rule it should be at least equal to half a day's dry weather flow. This will enable the works manager to turn out a good effluent, even in wet weather, when the volume is much increased. With regard to the practical effect of any particular treatment, it is now recognized that the matters in solution are scarcely touched by any chemical process that can be employed, but the removal of the suspended matter is a great gain, as has been proved in the case of London. Briefly, a good chemical process will do about one-half of the work of purification ; and in many cases it is not necessary to go further. With regard to the kind of chemical to use, lime, either alone or in conjunction with aluminium sulphate or with ferrous sulphate, is most frequently employed. When the resulting sewage sludge has to be filter-pressed, lime is almost essential for the primary treatment of the sewage, in order to destroy the glutinous nature of the sludge. In the case of large towns like London, Manchester and Salford, the sludge is shipped In specially designed steamers, of 600 tons to looo tons burden, and discharged into the sea at a distance from the coast. The London outfall works have a fleet of six steamers, which convey the sludge out to Barrow Deep, a channel in the North Sea about 10 m. east of the Nore lightship. Each vessel has four oblong tanks having a total capacity of 1000 tons of sludge, which can be discharged in seven minutes when the valves are fully opened. The sludge is discharged about 10 ft. under the water and being agitated by the action of the ship's screws is very completely diffused. The sand and earthy matters soon subside and the organic matter is rapidly consumed by the organic life in the sea-water. A careful microscopical examination and chemical analysis failed to detect more than the merest trace of the mineral portion of the sludge, either in dredgings from the bottom of the channels or on the surface of the sandbanks. The cost of the disposal works out at about 4jd. per ton of sludge.

In the case of towns situated on rivers above the range of tidal waters, the further purification is effected either on land, or by means of artificial filters, or a combination of the two. The question of land treatment is frequently considered from the standpoint of so many persons to the acre; but the best method is to ascertain how many gallons per day an acre of land will purify. As the quality of land varies greatly, the proper volume to be applied per acre can only be ascertained after a good deal of experience. The range lies between about 3000 gallons per acre per day in the case of poor land, to about 30,000 gallons in the same period in the case of the best. Let us assume an instance of the latter kind. The works have been designed on a basis of 1000 persons per acre, producing 30,000 gallons of sewage per day; the land being of a highly suitable character, and the sewage having been clarified, success is assured. But, conversely, through faulty construction of the sewers, the sewage amounts, say, to 60 gallons per head; the land, unable to deal with the liquid, quickly becomes water-logged and offensive, and the works are a failure. Precisely the same remarks apply to artificial filters, which are always designed upon the basis of so many gallons per square yard of filtering material. Many failures of both land and filters have been due to the fact that the actual sewage flow was greatly in excess of the original estimates. We may say that clay soils lie at one end of the scale, and very porous sands or gravels at the other; obviously, therefore, each case must be considered on its merits. It should be remembered that when such moderate quantities as 3000 gallons per acre per day are applied to land, there is no necessity to remove the suspended matter; broad irrigation being resorted to, the land readily assimilates the solids, and thus one source of expense may be eliminated.

The artificial filters are now generally called bacteria beds; although filters have been in constant use in some cases, as for instance at Wimbledon, for a great number of years. The first filters constructed at these works were made in 1876, and were about 7000 sq. yds. in extent. With the growth of population additions have been made of at least five times that area. One of the original beds was used for crude sewage, but the mineral matter choked it completely, and experience pointed to the necessity of clarifying the sewage before filtration. Whether the treatment should be in open or in closed tanks, or whether chemicals should be added, has been much debated; but seeing that ordinary sewage contains one ton of suspended mineral matter in each million gallons, it is clear that if this is not removed before filtration, it will be retained in the niters and ultimately choke them, as happened at Wimbledon. The common cesspool has been resuscitated and improved under the name of a septic tank. In this the disintegration of the suspended matter is brought about by anaerobic organisms, and the liquid in passing slowly through the tank absorbs most of the gases due to the breaking down of the organic matter. There is no oxidation at this stage. The liquid is next passed through artificial filters, of which there are many types. What is known as a " contact " filter was constructed, probably for the first time on a large scale, at the London (Barking) works. The object sought to be attained was that of making each cubic yard of filtering material perform the same amount of work, and the least expensive way was apparently to close the outlet, and charge the filter with liquid, allowing it to remain in contact for about two hours, and then drawing it off so that the bed could be thoroughly aerated. No doubt a better way would be to distribute the sewage in the form of a shower of liquid, and work the beds continuously, but this involves a good deal of expense for spreading appliances, and a fall is necessary in the works, which is not always obtainable. Probably the most complete installation of the kind last referred to is that at Salford. Iron pipes are led over the surface of the filters, and spraying nozzles are placed at short intervals, so that the sewage is applied in the form of a heavy shower. But whatever form the filters and appliances may assume, the final result is the same. If the beds are properly aerated, the aerobic organism establishes itself in prodigious numbers, and attacks the organic matter, breaking it down into harmless, soluble and gaseous products. It is, of course, assumed that the filters are adequate in area, and are properly managed. With regard to the materials to be employed in making sewage filters, it is now well established that the size of the particles has a more important bearing than their composition. At the same time, it may be remarked that materials with very rough surfaces, as for instance coke breeze, are more effective than those with smooth surfaces. Doubtless the former classes afford, in the interstices, a lodging for the bacteria, and no doubt a given quantity of material with rough surfaces will harbour greater numbers than the same amount of smooth.

A reference must be made to the Manchester experiments. The experts' report suggested the provision of 60 acres of filters for dealing with the sewage of the city, which is said to average 30 million gallons per day in dry weather. But after inquiry into the merits of the proposal the officials of the Local Government Board recommended that the filters should be 92 acres in extent, and that the effluent should be finished on land. Storm water filters to take the excess after the sewage was diluted six times were also recommended, such filters being designed to pass 500 gallons per sq. yd. per diem. In this case clarified sewage was to be dealt with on filters 3 ft. 4 in. in depth, composed of clinkers broken to pass a sieve with meshes of i% in., but retained on one with meshes of 5 in. It will be observed, therefore, that the bacterial treatment of sewage has scarcely as yet emerged from the experimental stage, but it will certainly be adopted in many cases where it is impracticable to obtain good land in sufficient quantity for the purification of the sewage. With regard to the disposal of sewage-sludge in inland towns, until it has been fairly established by a long trial that bacteria will dispose of this material, the reduction of its bulk by means of filter-presses will be found to be the most satisfactory method of dealing with it. The practical effect is the conversion of 5 tons of offensive mud into i ton of hard cake, which may be readily handled and carted. The cost is usually about as. 6d. per ton of cake, and a million gallons of average sewage produce about 8 tons.

The chief works of reference upon this subject are: Colonel E. C. S. Moore, Sanitary Engineering; L. Parkes and H. Kenwood, Hygiene and Public Health; A. J. Martin, The Sewage Problem; A. P. Poley, Law Affecting Sewers and Drains; J. J. Cosgrove, Principles and Practice of Plumbing, The Purification of Sewage; Colonel E. C. S. Moore, New Tables for the Complete Solution of Ganguillet and Kutter's Formula for the Flow of Liquid in Open Channels, Pipes, Sewers and Conduits; W. J. Dibden, The Purification of Sewage and Water; W. Spinks, House Drainage Manual; S. Rideal, Sewage and the Bacterial Purification of Sewage. Municipal Engineers' Specification. (J. BT.)

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

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