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SETUBAL (formerly called in English St Ubes and in French St Yves), a seaport of Portugal, in the district of Lisbon (formerly included in the province of Estremadura) , 18 m. S.E. of Lisbon by the Barreiro-Pinhal Novo-Setubal railway. Pop. (1900) 22,074. Setubal is built on the north shore of a deep estuary, formed by the rivers Sado, Marateca and Sao Martinho, which discharge their waters into the Bay of Setubal 3 m. below the city. Setubal is overtopped on the west by the treeless red heights of the Serra da Arrabida. There are five forts for the defence of the harbour; the castle of St Philip, built by Philip III. of Spain (1578-1621), commands the city. Setubal is the third seaport and fourth largest city of Portugal. It exports large quantities of fine salt, oranges and muscatel grapes; it has many sardine-curing and boat-building establishments, and manufactures of fish-manure and lace. Its port is officially included in that of Lisbon. Under John II. (1481-1495) Setubal was a favourite royal residence, and one of the churches dates from this period; but most of the ancient buildings were destroyed by the great earthquake of 1755. There are some fine public buildings, statues and fountains of later date, including a statue of the poet M. M. de B. du Bocage (1766-1806), who was a native of Setubal. In the sandhills of a low-lying promontory in the bay opposite Setubal are the so-called ruins of " Trcia," uncovered in part by heavy rains in 1814 and excavated in 1850 by an antiquarian society. These ruins of " Troia," among which have been brought to view a beautiful Roman house and some 1600 Roman coins, are those of Cetobriga, which flourished A.D. 300-400. In the neighbourhood, on a mountain 1600 ft. high, is the monastery of Arrabida.

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

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