SENECA INDIANS, a tribe of North American Indians of Iroquoian stock. They call themselves Tshoti-nondawaga, " people of the mountain." The French called them Tsonnontouan. Their former range was in western New York state between Seneca lake and the Genesee river. They were one of the Six Nations League of the Iroquois, and eventually became the most important tribe of the league. They were foremost in all the Iroquoian wars, and were the official guardians of the western frontier of the league. On the defeat of the Erie and Neuter tribes they occupied the county west of Lake Erie and south along the Alleghany to Pennsylvania. They fought on the English side in the War of Independence. About 2700 are now on reservations in New York State, while a few are in Oklahoma and on Grand River reservation, Ontario.
For Seneca Cosmology see 21st Ann. Report Bureau Amer. Ethnol. (1899-1900).
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)