Seine, Department Of
SEINE, DEPARTMENT OF, the department of northern France which has Paris as its chief town, formed in 1790 of part of the province of Ilede-France. It is entirely surrounded by the department of Seine-et-Oise, from which it is separated at certain parts by the Seine, the Marne and the Bievre. The area of the department is only 185 sq. m., and of this surface about a sixth is occupied by Paris; the suburban towns also are close together and very populous. In actual population (3,848,618 in 1906) as well as in density (23-7 persons per acre) it holds the first place. Flowing from south-east to north-west through the department, ' the Seine forms three loops: on the right it receives above Paris the Marne, and below Paris the Rouillon, and on the left hand the Bievre within the precincts of the city. The left bank of the Seine is in general higher than the right, and consists of the Villejuif and Chatillon plateaus separated by the Bievre; the highest point (560 ft.) is above Chatillon and the lowest (105) at the exit of the Seine. Below Paris the river flows between the plain of Gennevilliers and Nanterre (commanded by Mont Valerien) on the left and the plain of St Denis on the right. On the right side, to the east of Paris, are the heights of Avron and Vincennes commanding the course of the Marne. Communication is further facilitated by canals.
Market gardening is the chief agricultural industry, and by means of irrigation and manuring the soil is made to yield from ten to eleven crops per annum. Some districts are specially celebrated, Montreuil for its peaches, Fontenay-aux-Roses for its strawberries and roses, and other places for flowers and nurseries. The plain of Gennevilliers fertilized by the sewage water of Paris yields large quantities of vegetables. Milch-cows are reared in large numbers. The principal woods (Boulogne and Vincennes) belong to Paris, t is partly owing to the number of quarries in the district that Paris owes its origin: Chatillon and Montrouge in the south yield freestone, and Bagneux and Clamart in the south and Montreuil and Rqmainville in the east possess the richest plaster quarries in France. Within the circuit of Paris are certain old quarries now forming the catacombs. Most of the industrial establishments in the department are situated in Paris or at St Denis (qq.v.). The department is traversed by all the railway lines which converge in Paris, and also contains the inner circuit railway (Chemin de Fer de Ceinture) and part_of the outer circuit. There are 3 arrondissements (Paris, St Denis, and Sceaux), 41 cantons and 78 communes. The department forms the archiepiscopal diocese of Paris, falls within the jurisdiction of the Paris court of appeal and the academic (educational division) of Paris, and is divided between the II., III., IV., V. and VI corps d'armee. The chief places besides Paris are St Denis, Asnieres, Aubervilliers, BouIogne-sur-Seine, Clichy-sur-Seine, Courbevoie, Levallois-Perret, Neuilly-sur-Seine, Pantin, St Ouen, Colombes, Charenton, Ivry-sur-Seine, Montreuil-sous-Bois, Nanterre, Nogentsur-Marne, Vincennes and Arcueil.
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)