SAMARIUM [symbol Sm, atomic weight 150-4 (0=i6)], a rare earth metal (see RARE EARTHS). The separation has been worked at by A. v. Welsbach, L. de Boisbaudran, Urbain and Lacombe (Complex rendus, 1903, 137 pp. 568, 792); Demarcay (ibid. 1900, 130, p. 1019); Benedicks; Feit and Przibylla (Zeit. anorg. Chem., 1905, 43, p. 202) and others. The metal may be obtained by reduction of its oxide with magnesium. It combines with hydrogen to form a hydride. The salts are mostly of a yellowish colour. The chloride, SmClj. 6H 2 O, is a deliquescent solid which when heated in hydrochloric acid gas to 180 C. yields the anhydrous chloride. This anhydrous chloride is reduced to a lower chloride, of composition SmClz, when heated to a high temperature in a current of hydrogen or ammonia (Matignon and Cazes, Comptes rendus, ,1906, 142, p. 183). The chloride, SmCh, is a brown crystalline powder which is decomposed by water with liberation of hydrogen and the formation of the oxide, SmjOs, and an oxychloride, SmOCl. The fluoride, SmFj.HzO, was prepared by H. Moissan by acting with fluorine on the carbide. The sulphate, Sm 2(804)3.81120, is obtained by the action of sulphuric acid on the nitrate. It forms double salts with the alkaline sulphates. The carbide, SmC2, is formed when the oxide is heated with carbon in the electric furnace.
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)