Saint Arnaud, Jacques Leroy De
SAINT ARNAUD, JACQUES LEROY DE (1801-1854), marshal of France, was born at Paris on the 20th of August 1801. He entered the army in 1817, and after ten years of garrison service, which he varied by gambling and wild courses, he still held only the lowest commissioned grade. He then resigned, led a life of adventure in several lands and returned to the army at thirty as a sub-lieutenant. He took part in the suppression of the Vend6e emeute.and was for a time on General(Marshal)Bugeaud's staff. But his debts and the scandals of his private life compelled him to go to Algeria as a captain in the Foreign Legion. There he distinguished himself on numerous occasions, and after twelve years had risen to the rank of martcfial de camp. In 1848 he was placed at the head of a brigade during the revolution in Paris. On his return to Africa, it is said because Louis Napoleon considered him suitable to be the military head of a coup d'etat, an expedition was made into Little Kabylia, in which St Arnaud showed his prowess as a commander-in-chief and provided his superiors with the pretext for bringing him home as a general of division (July 1851). He succeeded Marshal Magnan as minister of war and superintended the military operations of the coup d'etat of the 2nd of December (1851) which placed Napoleon III. on the throne. A year later he was made marshal of France and a senator, remaining at the head of the war office till 1854, when he set out to command the French in the Crimea, his British colleague being Lord Raglan. He died on board ship on the zgth of September 1854 shortly after commanding at the battle of the Alma. His body was conveyed to France and buried in the Invalides.
See Lettres du Marshal de Saint Arnaud (Paris, 1855; 2nd edition with memoir by Sainte-Beuve, 1858).
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)