PRESTONPANS, a police burgh and watering-place of Haddingtonshire, Scotland, on the Firth of Forth, 9^ m. E. of Edinburgh by the North British railway. Pop. (1901), 2614. A mile to the east of the village is the site of the battle of the 21st of September 1745, in which Prince Charles Edward and his highlanders gained a complete victory over the royal forces under Sir John Cope. Colonel James Gardiner was mortally wounded after an heroic stand, and an obelisk in the grounds of his house at Bankton, close to the battlefield, commemorates his valour, while the ballad of Adam Skirving (1719-1803), " Hey, Johnnie Cope!" has immortalized the rout of Cope.
Until the beginning of the 19th century, the salt trade was prosecuted with great success, the pans having been laid down as long ago as 1185, but the industry has declined. There are manufactures of fire-bricks, tiles and pottery, besides brewing and soapmaking. In the vicinity there is an extensive coal-field. Fisheries are still of importance, although the bed of Pandore oysters (an esteemed variety) has lost something of its former fertility. There are harbours at Morrison's Haven to the west and at Cockenzie and Port Seton to the north-east, which practically form one village, with a population of 1687. The cross of the barony of Preston dates from 1617. Schaw's Hospital Trust, at one time intended for the education and maintenance of the children of poor parents, has been modified, and the bequest is used to provide free education and bursaries, while the building has been leased by the trustees of Miss Mary Murray, who bequeathed 20,000 (afterwards increased to 30,000) for the training of poor children as domestic servants.
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)