Pozzo Di Borgo, Carlo Andrea, Count
POZZO DI BORGO, CARLO ANDREA, COUNT (1764-1842). Russian diplomatist, was born at Alata, near Ajaccio, of a noble Corsican family, on the 8th of March 1764, some four years before the cession of the island to France. He was educated at Pisa, and in early life was closely associated with Napoleon and Joseph Bonaparte, the two families being at that time closely allied in politics. Pozzo was one of the two delegates sent to the National Assembly in Paris to demand the political incorporation of Corsica in France, and was subsequently one of the Corsican deputies to the Legislative Assembly, where he sat on the benches of the right until the events of August 1792. On his safe return to Corsica he was warmly received by Paoli, but found himself in opposition to the Bonaparte brothers, who were now veering to the Jacobin party. Under the new constitution Pozzo was elected procureur-general-syndic, that is, chief of the civil government, while Paoli commanded the army. With Paoli he refused to obey a summons to the bar of the Convention, and the definite breach with the Bonaparte family, who actively supported the revolutionary authorities, dates from this time. Eventually Paoli and Pozzo accepted foreign help, and from 1794 to 1796, during the English protectorate of Corsica, Pozzo was president of the council of state under Sir Gilbert Elliot. When Napoleon sent troops to occupy the island he was excepted from the general amnesty, and took refuge in Rome, but the French authorities demanded his expulsion, and gave orders for his arrest in northern Italy. After a short stay in London he accompanied in 1798 Sir Gilbert Elliot (now become Lord Minto) on an embassy to Vienna, where he lived for six years and was well received in political circles. Hatred of Napoleon was his dominant passion, and even as an exile of no official standing he was recognized as a dangerous enemy. In 1804 through the influence of Prince Adam Czartoryski he entered the Russian diplomatic service, and was employed in 1805 as Russian commissioner with the Anglo- Neapolitan, and in 1806 with the Prussian army. He was entrusted with an important mission to Constantinople in 1807, but the conclusion of the alliance between Alexander I. and Napoleon at Tilsit in July interrupted his career, necessitating a temporary retirement after the completion of his business with the Porte. He returned to Vienna, but on the demand of Napoleon for his extradition Metternich desired him to leave the capital. In London, where he found safety from Napoleon, he renewed many old ties, and remained in England until 1812, when he was recalled by Alexander. He diligently sought to sow dissension in the Bonaparte household, and in a mission to Sweden he secured the co-operation of Bernadotte against Napoleon. On the entry of the allies into Paris he became commissary general to the provisional government. At the Bourbon restoration General Pozzo di Borgo became Russian ambassador at the Tuileries, and sought to secure a marriage between the duke of Berry and the Russian grandduchess Anna, Alexander's sister. He assisted at the Congress of Vienna, and during the Hundred Days he joined Louis XVIII. in Belgium, where he was also instructed to discuss the situation with Wellington. The tsar dreamed of allowing an appeal to the people of France on the subject of the government of France in accordance with his vague liberalizing tendencies, but Pozzo's suggestions in this direction were met by violent opposition, the duke refusing to make any concessions to what he regarded as rebellion; but in Petersburg, on the other hand, his attachment to the Bourbon dynasty was considered excessive. During the early years of his residence in Paris Pozzo laboured tirelessly to lessen the burdens laid on France by the allies and to shorten the period of foreign occupation. That his French sympathies were recognized in Paris is shown by the strange suggestion that he should enter the French ministry with the portfolio of foreign affairs. He consistently supported the moderate, party at court, and stood by the ministry of the due de Richelieu, thus earning the distrust and dislike of Metternich, who held him responsible for the revival of Liberal agitation in France. His influence at the Tuileries declined with the accession of Charles X., whose reactionary tendencies had always been distasteful to him; but at the revolution of 1830, when the Tsar Nicholas was reluctant to acknowledge Louis Philippe, he did good service in preventing difficulties with Russia. In 1832 he visited Petersburg; the next year he was in London renewing his relations with Wellington, and early in 1835 he was suddenly transferred to the London embassy in succession to Prince Lieven. Although he did not lose in official standing, Pozzo was aware that this change was due to suspicions long harboured in various quarters in St Petersburg that his diplomacy was too favourable to French interests. In London his health suffered, and he retired from the service in 1839 to spend the rest of his days in Paris, where he died on the 15th of February 1842. He had been made a count and peer of France in 1818. See Ouvaroff, Stein et Pozzo (St Petersburg, 1846) ; Correspondance diplomatique du comte Pozzo di Borgo et du comte de Nesselrode, ed. by Charles Pozzo di Borgo (2 vols., Paris, 1890-1897); Vicomte A. Maggiolo, Corse, France et Russie. Pozzo di Borgo, 1764-1842 (Paris, 1890) ; J.B.H.R. Capefigure, Les Diplomates europeens (4 vols., 1843-1847).
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)