Pope Pius Viii
POPE PIUS VIII (Francesco Xaviero Castiglioni) , pope from 1829 to 1830, who came of a notable family at Cingoli near Ancona, was born on the 20th of November 1761. He- studied canon law at Rome, became vicar-general at Anagni and later at Fano, and in 1800 was appointed bishop of Montalto. Because he refused the oath of allegiance to the Napoleonic king of Italy he was carried captive to France; but in 1816 his steadfastness was rewarded by his being created cardinal-priest of Sta Maria in Trastevere; and this same year he was translated from the see of Montalto to that of Cesena. In 1821 he was made cardinalbishop of Frascati, also grand penitentiary; and later he became prefect of the Congregation of the Index. In the conclave which followed the death of Leo XII., Castiglioni, the candidate of France,- was elected pope on the 31st of March 1829. He avoided nepotism, abandoned the system cf espionage employed by his predecessor, and published an encyclical condemning Bible societies and secret associations. He rejoiced over Catholic emancipation in England, recognized Louis Philippe" as king of the French, and exhibited a pacific spirit in dealing with the problem of mixed marriages in Germany. Worn out with work, he died on the morning of the ist of December 1830. His successor was Gregory XVI.
AUTHORITIES. Zopffel and Benrath, " Pius VIII.," in HerzogHauck, Realencyklopadie, xv. 458 seq. (Leipzig, 1904, with bibliography); F. Nielsen, A History of the Papacy in the lylh Century, ii- 3 l ~5 <3 (London, 1906); P. B. Gams, Series episcoporum ecclesiae catholicae (Regensburg, 1873). (W. W. R.*)
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)