PILOCARPINE, C,,H 16 N 2 O 2 , an alkaloid found, together with isopilocarpine and other related compounds, in the leaves of jaborandi (Pilocarpus pennatifolius) . It was first isolated by E. Hardy in 1875 (Ber.,8, p. 1594), and is a crystalline, very hygroscopic solid. It is a strong poison. It has the properties of a monacid base and contains the methylamino group, -NCH 3 . When heated with hydrochloric acid it gives isopilocarpine. Isopilocarpine was isolated in 1900 by H. A. D. Jowett (Journ. Ghent. Soc. 77, p. 473), and is a colourless oil which boils at 261 C. (10 mm.). It is a monacid base which is readily soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis. Jowett is of the opinion that pilocarpine and isopilocarpine are stereo-isomers of the structure: xjCH-N-CH,C 2 H 6 -CH-CO\ NT I >0 \CH: C CH 2 CH-CH2/ PILOfiA, a town of northern Spain, in the province of Oviedo; between the right bank of the river Pilona, a left-hand tributary of the Sella, and the Sierra de Abes (3268 ft.). Pop. (1900), 18,228. Though officially classed as a town, Pilona is rather a densely populated mining and agricultural district. It is served by the railway from Infiesto, on the river Pilona, to Oviedo and Gijon.
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)