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PIAUHY, or PIAUHI, a north-eastern state of Brazil, bounded N. and W. by Maranhao, E. by Ceara, Pernambuco and Bahia, and S. by Bahia. It has a few miles of Atlantic coast-line on the N., and the Rio Parnahyba forms the boundary line with Maranhao throughout its entire length. Area, 116,523 sq. m.; pop. (1900), 334,328. Part of the state on the Atlantic coast and along the lower Parnahyba is low, swampy and malarial. South of this the country rises gradually to a high plateau with open campos. This plateau region is watered by numerous tributaries of the Parnahyba, chief of which are the Urussuhy, the Caninde and its tributary the Piauhy, the Gurgueia and its tributary the Parahim, which drains the large inland lake of Parnagui, the Longa, and the Poty, which has its source in the state of Ceara. The Parnahyba is navigable for boats of 3 ft. draught up to Nova York, a few miles above the mouth of the Gurgueia, and could be made navigable up to the mouth of the Balsas. The climate is hot and humid in the lowlands and along the lower Parnahyba, but in the uplands it is dry with high Sun temperatures and cool nights. The principal industry is stock-raising, which dates from the first settlement in 1674 by Domingos Affonso Mafrense, who established here a large number of cattle ranges. A secondary industry is the raising of goats, which are able to stand neglect and a scanty food supply. Sheep have likewise been raised in Piauhy, but there is no market for mutton and their wool is not utilized. The agricultural products are cotton, sugar and tobacco. Of food-stuffs the people do not produce enough for their own consumption. Forest products include rubber, carnauba wax and dyewopds. The exports include hides, skins, rubber, wax, tobacco and cotton. The capital is Therezina, on the right bank of the Parnahyba, 250 m. above Parnahyba (town), with which it is connected by a line of light-draught river boats. The town dates from 1852, is attractively situated, and is regularly laid out with broad, straight streets crossing each other at right angles. The population of the municipio in 1890 was 31,523, which includes a large rural district. Other towns, with their populations in 1890, are Oeiras (19,858), founded in 1718 under the name of Moxa; Amarante (15,525); Valenca (17,693); and CampoMaior (12,425), the figures given of population being those of the large districts (municipios) in which the towns are situated.

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

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