PERNE, ANDREW (c. 1510-1589), vice-chancellor of Cambridge University and dean of Ely, born about 1591, was son of John Perne of East Bilney, Norfolk. He was educated at St John's college, Cambridge, graduating B.A. in 1539, B.D. in 1547 and D.D, in 1552. He was elected fellow of Queens' in 1540, and vice-president in 1551, and was five times vicechancellor; but he owes his notoriety to his remarkable versatility, and, like the vicar of Bray, he was always faithful to the national religion, whatever it might be. In April 1547 he advocated Catholic doctrines, but recanted two months later, and his Protestant faith was strengthened during Edward VI. 's reign; he was appointed a royal chaplain and canon of Windsor. Soon after Mary's accession, however, he perceived the error of his ways and was made master of Peterhouse in 1554 and dean of Ely in 1557. He preached the sermon in 1556 when the bodies of Bucer and Fagius were disinterred and burnt for heresy, and also in 1560 when these proceedings were reversed and the dead heretics were rehabilitated. In Elizabeth's reign he subscribed the Thirty-nine Articles, denounced the pope and tried to convert Abbot Feckenham to Protestantism; and in 1584 Whitgift in vain recommended him for a bishopric. He died on the 26th of April 1589. He was selected as the type of Anglican prelate by the authors of the Martin Mar-prelate tracts and other Puritans, who nicknamed him " Old Andrew Turncoat," " Andrew Ambo," " Old Father Palinode." Cambridge wits, it was said, translated " perno " by " I turn, I rat, I change often "; and a coat that had often been turned was said to have been " perned." (A. F. P.)
P&RONNE, a town of northern France, capital of an arrondissement of the department of Somme, on the right bank of the Somme at its confluence with the Cologne, 35 m. E. by N. of Amiens by rail. Pop. (1906), 3698. The church of St Jean (1509-1525) was greatly damaged during the bombardment of 1870-71, but has since been restored. The castle of Peronne still retains four large conical-roofed towers dating from the middle ages, one of which is said to have been the prison of Louis XI. in 1468, when he w^s forced to agree to the " Treaty of Peronne." Peronne has a sub-prefecture, a tribunal of first instance and a communal college. Its trade and industry are of little importance.
The Prankish kings had a villa at Peronne, which ClovisII. gave to Erchinoaldus, mayor of the palace. The latter founded a monastery here, and raised in honour of St Fursy a collegiate church, which was a wealthy establishment until the Revolution; it is the burial-place of Charles the Simple, who died of starvation in a dungeon in Peronne, into which he had been thrown by the count of Vermandois (929). After the death of Philip of Alsace, Peronne, which he had inherited through his wife, escheated to the French Crown in the reign of Philip Augustus, from whom in 1209 it received a charter. By the treaty of Arras (1435) it was given to the Burgundians; bought back by Louis XI., it passed again into the hands of Charles the Bold in 1465. On the death of Charles, however, in 1477, Louis XI. resumed possession. In 1536 the emperor Charles V. besieged Peronne, but without success; in its defence a woman called Marie Foure greatly distinguished herself. A statue of her stands in the town; and the anniversary of the raising of the siege is still celebrated annually. It was the first town after Paris at which the League was proclaimed in 1577. Peronne's greatest misfortunes occurred during the Franco-German War. It was invested on the 27th of December 1870, and bombarded from the 28th to the gth of the following January, upon which date, on account of the sufferings of the civil population, among whom small-pox had broken out, it was compelled to capitulate.
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)