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PERNAU (in Russ. Pernov and in Esthonian Pernolin), a seaport and watering-place of western Russia, in the' government of Livonia, 155 m. N. of Riga, on the left bank of the Pernau or Pernova, which about half a mile farther down enters the Bay of Pernau, the northern arm of the Gulf of Riga. Pop., 12,856. The harbour is usually free from ice from the end of April to the middle of December.

Founded on the right side of the river in 1255 by one of the bishops of Oesel, Pernau soon became a flourishing place. In the 16th century it was occupied in succession by the Swedes, the Poles and the Teutonic Knights. After 1599 the Poles transferred the town to the left side of the river; and in 1642 the Swedes, who had been in possession since 1617, strengthened it with regular fortifications. In 1710 it was taken by the Russians, and the fortress is now demolished.

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

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