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Payment Of Members

PAYMENT OF MEMBERS. From time to time proposals have been made to reintroduce in the English parliamentary system a practice which is almost universally adopted in other countries, that of paying a state salary to members of the legislative body. In the earlier history of the EngUsh parliament the payment of commoners or representatives of the people was for long the practice. They had first been summoned to the great council of the realm in 1265 in the reign of Henry III. The shires and boroughs they represented paid them for their services, and reimbursed the expenses they were put to in joume>dng to and from the place of meeting. In 1322, by a statute of Edward II., the salary of a knight was fixed at 4s. a day, and that of a citizen or burgher at 2s. a day. These payments could be enforced by writs issued after the dissolution of each parliament, and there are many instances of the issue of such writs down to the reign of Henry VIII.; while the last known instance is that of one Thomas King, who in 1681 obtained a writ for his salary against the corporation of Harwich. The practice of the payment of members of parHament gradually fell into desuetude, and in the second parliament of Charles II. strong disapproval was expressed of the practice. Its gradual abandonment was due first to the difficulty of securing representatives in the early parliaments. Men of business were unwilling to detach themselves from their affairs, as travel was slow and dangerous; in addition to the perils of the journey there was the almost certain knowledge that a safe return from parliament would be followed by the ill will of the member's neighbours, for every meeting of parliament was but a device on the part of the sovereign for inflicting some new form of taxation, and a refusal to vote such taxation was but to incur the royal displeasure. The towns themselves were equally disinclined to bear the burden of their member's maintenance, and some even went so far as to obtain their disfranchisement. In the second place, the growing influence of parliament in the 16th century brought about a revulsion of feeling as to parliamentary services, and the increase in the number of candidates led first to bargaining on their part in the shape of undertaking to accept reduced wages and expenses, and, finally, to forego all. A step further was reached when the constituency bargained as to what it should receive from its representative, resulting in wholesale bribery, which required legislation to end it (see Corrupt Practices).

In England, the House of Commons has on various occasions carried resolutions in favour of the principle, more especially on the 24th of March 1893 (by 276 votes to 229), and on the 22nd of March 1895 (by 176 to 158). On these occasions the resolutions simply specified an " adequate allowance "; but on the 7th of March 1906 a resolution was carried (by 348 votes to no) in favour of an allowance " at the rate of £300 per annum."

Appended are the salaries paid to legislators in various countries in 1910.

British Colonies South Africa. - Before the South Africa Act igog, which brought about the union of Cape Colony, Natal, Orange River Colony and the Transvaal, each colony had its own legislature. For purposes of comparison, the salaries which were paid to the members of these state legislatures are given below. The act of 1909 reduced the colonies to the position of dependent provinces, entrusted only with local administration by means of provincial councils. The act of 1909 (§ 76) enacts that the members of provincial councils shall receive such allowances as shall be determined by the governor-general in council. Members of the new South African legislature receive £400 a year, subject to a deduction of £3 a day for each day's non-attendance.

Cape Colony. - Members of either house were paid 2ls. a day, and those residing more than 15 m. from Cape Town an additional 15s. a day, for a period not exceeding 90 days.

Natal. - Members of the legislature were not paid, but those residing more than 2 m. from the seat of government received a travelling allowance of £1 a day during the session.

Orange River Colony. - At the end of the session each member received £1 50, and an additional £2 for each day of actual attendance, but not more than £300 in all.

Transvaal Colony. - As in the Orange River Colony.

Canada. - Federal government. Members of both houses are paid $2500 per session, but subject to a deduction of $15 a day for each day of non-attendance.

Ontario. - Members of the Legislative Assembly are paid mileage and an allowance of $6 a day for 30 days, with a maximum of $1000.

Quebec.^ - Members of the Legislative Assembly are paid $6 a day during the session.

Npva Scotia. - Members are paid an indemnity of $500 for the session.

New Brunswick. - Members of the Legislative Assembly receive $500 per session and travelling expenses.

Manitoba. - Members of the Legislative Assembly receive $1000 per session and travelling expenses.

British Columbia. - Members of the Legislative Assembly receive $1200 per session and travelling expenses.

Prince Edward Island. - Members of the Legislative Assembly ' Quebec and Nova Scotia have each two chambers. The other Canadian provinces have only one chamber.

receive $160 per annum and travelling expenses, with an additional $12 for postage.

.iuslralian Commonweallh. - Members of parliament receive £600 per annum.

New South Wales. - Members of the Legislative Assembly receive £300 per annum, and free travel over all government railways and tramways. They are also given official stamped envelopes for their postage purposes.

Victoria. - Members of the Legislative Assembly receive £300 per annum and free passes over all railways.

Queensland. - Members of the Legislative Assembly receive £300 per annum, with travelling expenses.

South Australia. - Members both of the Legislative Council and of the House of Assembly receive £200 per annum and free passes over all government railways.

Western Australia. - Members of the Legislative Council receive £200 a year and free travel on all government railways.

rasmonj'a. - Members of both houses receive £100 a year and free railway passes.

New Zealand. - Members of the Legislative Council are paid £200 per annum. Members of the House of Representatives are paid £25 a month

United States Federal Government. - Senators, representatives or delegates receive $7500 a year, and travelling expenses.

Alabama. - There is a session once in four years, such session being limited to 50 days, during which senators and representatives receive $4 a day and mileage.

Arizona Territory. - A biennial session of 60 days' duration, during which members of the council and representatives receive $4 a day and mileage.

Arkansas has a biennial session of 60 days' duration, for which senators and representatives receive $6 a day and mileage.

California's legislature meets biennially, but there is no fixed length for the session. Senators and members of the Assembly receive $1000 'and mileage for the term.

Colorado's session is biennial and limited to 90 days. Senators and representatives receive $7 a day and mileage during session.

Connecticut gives senators and representatives $300 and mileage for their term of two years.

Delaware has biennial sessions of 60 days, and may have extra sessions limited to 30 days. Senators and representatives receive $5 a day during sessions.

Florida has biennial sessions of 60 days. Senators and representatives receive $6 a day during the session and mileage.

Georgia has annual sessions limited to 50 days. Senators and representatives receive $4 a day and mileage.

Idaho's senators and representatives receive mileage and $5 a day during the session, which is biennial.

Illinois has a biennial session, for which senators and representatives receive $1000 a year and mileage. For extraordinary sessions they receive $5 a day.

Indiana has biennial sessions limited to 60 days. Senators and representatives receive $6 a day and mileage.

Iowa has biennial sessions of unlimited length. Senators and representatives receive $550 for the session, with mileage.

Kansas has biennial sessions limited to 50 days. Senators and representatives receive $3 a day during the session, with mileage.

Kentucky has biennial sessions limited to 60 days. Senators and representatives receive $5 a day and mileage.

Louisiana has biennial sessions limited to 60 days. Senators and representatives receive $5 a day during the session with mileage.

Maine's senators and representatives receive $300 a year and mileage. Sessions are biennial and of no fixed length.

Maryland has biennial sessions limited to 90 days. Senators and delegates receive $5 a day during the session and mileage.

Massachusetts has an annual session, for which senators and representatives receive each a lump sum of $750 and mileage.

Michigan has biennial sessions not of fixed length, and senators and representatives are paid $800 a year and mileage.

Minnesota has biennial sessions limited to 90 days. Senators and representatives receive $1000 a year besides limited travelling expenses.

Mississippi has a session every four years, unlimited in length. Special sessions, also, limited to 30 days, are held in alternate years. Senators and representatives receive a sum of $400 for each session.

Missouri has biennial sessions of no fixed length. Senators and representatives receive $5 a day for the first 70 days of each session, and $1 a day for each succeeding day.

Montana has biennial sessions limited to 60 days. Senators and representatives receive Si 2 a day during session.

Nebraska has biennial sessions unlimited in length. Senators and representatives are paid $5 a day and mileage (10 cents a mile) for not more than 60 days of any one session. If extraordinary sessions are held the total days paid for must not exceed 100 during the two years for which they sit.

Nevada has biennial sessions limited to 60 days, but special sessions limited to 20 days may be held. Senators and representatives receive $10 a day and mileage during sessions.

New Hampshire has biennial sessions, which last until prorogued by the governor. The duration is usually about three months. Senators and representatives receive $200 for the session and mileage.

New Jersey has an annual session, unlimited in length. Senators and members of the General Assembly receive $500 a year.

New Mexico has biennial sessions of 60 days. Members of the Council and representatives receive $4 a day.

New York has an annual session. Members ol the Senate and of the Assembly receive $1500 a year.

North Carolina has biennial sessions limited to 60 days. Senators and representatives receive $4. a day during the session, and mileage.

North Dakota has biennial sessions limited to 60 days. Senators and representatives receive $$ a day during the session and mileage.

Ohio has biennial sessions not limited in length. Senators and representatives receive $1000 a year.

Oklahoma has biennial sessions. Senators and representati\"es receive $6 a day for the first 60 dajs - thereafter $2 a day - and mileage (10 cents a mile).

Oregon has biennial sessions limited to 240 days. Senators and representatives receive $3 a day and mileage during the session.

Pennsylvania has biennial sessions. Senators and representatives receive $1500 for the session with mileage, with an extra allowance of $150 for stationery and postage.

Rhode Island has an annual session unlimited in length. Senators and representatives receive $5 a day during the session.

South Carolina has an annual session unlimited in length. Senators and representatives receive $4. a day for the first 40 days.

South Dakota has biennial sessions of 60 days. Senators and representatives receive $5 for each day's attendance, and travelling expenses.

Tennessee has biennial sessions. Senators and representati\e3 receive $4 a day for not more than 75 days a session and mileage (16 cents a mile). If absent they do not receive pay, unless they are physically unable to be present.

Texas has biennial sessions, unlimited in length. Senators and representatives receive mileage and $5 a day for the first 60 days of the session ; for succeeding days $2 a day.

Utah has biennial sessions limited to 60 days. Senators and representatives receive $4 a day during the session, and mileage.

Vermont has biennial sessions unlimited in length. Senators and representatives receive S4 a day during the session and mileage.

Virginia has biennial sessions limited to 60 days. Senators and delegates receive $500 for the session and mileage.

Washington has biennial sessions limited to 60 days. Senators and representatives receive $5 a day for each day's attendance and travelling expenses.

West Virginia has biennial sessions limited to 45 days, which can be added to by a two-thirds majority. Senators and delegates receive $4 a day during the session and mileage.

Wisconsin has biennial sessions. Senators and members of the Assembly receive $500 for the session, and travelling expenses at the rate of 10 cents a mile.

Wyoming has biennial sessions limited to 40 days. Senators and representatives receive $8 a day during the session and mileage.

Foreign Countries Argentina. - Both senators (30) and members of the House of Deputies (120) receive £1060 a year.

Austria. - Members of the Lower House (516) receive i6s. 8d. for each day's attendance, with travelling expenses.

Belgium. - Members of the Chamber of Representatives (166) receive £160 a year and a free pass over railways.

Bolivia. - Senators (16) and deputies (69) receive £40 a month during sessions, which last from 60 to 90 days.

Bulgaria. - Members of the Legislature receive i6s. a day during the session, which nominally lasts from the 15th of October to the 15th of December.

Denmark. - Members both of the Landsthing (66) and of the Folkething (114) receive iis. id. a day for the first six months of the session, and 6s. 8d. for each additional day of the session. They receive also second-class free passes on all railways.

France. - Members of both the Senate (300) and of the Chamber of Deputies (584) receive £600 a year.

German Empire. - Members both of the Bundesrat (58) and of the Reichstag (397) receive £150 for the session, but have deducted £1 for each day's absence. They receive also free passes over the German railways during the session.

Baden pays members of its Second Chamber and such members of the Upper Chamber as have not got hereditary seats 12s. a day and travelling expenses, but to those members who reside in the capital 9s. a day only.

Bavaria pays members of the Lower House (163) £180 for a regular session. They are also allowed free travel over the government railways.

Hesse. - Members of the Second Chamber (50) and nonhereditary members of the Upper Chamber who reside more than 1 1 m. from the place of meeting receive 9s. a day and 3s. for each night, besides a refund of their travelling expenses. Prussia. - Members of the Lower Chamber (433) receive travelling expenses and diet money (according to a fixed scale) of 15s. a day.

Saxe-Coburg. - Members of the Second Chamber residing in Coburg or Gotha receive 6s. a day; other members receive los. a day and travelling expenses.

Saxony. - Members of the Second Chamber (82) and nonhereditary members of the Upper Chamber receive 12s. a day (6s. a day if ihey live in the place of meeting) and an allowance for travelling.

Wiirttcmbcrg. - Members of both chambers receive 1 53. a day for actual attendance; also free passes over the railways.

Greece. - The members (235) receive £72 for the session, also free passes on railway and steamship lines.

Hungary. - Members of the House of Representatives (453) receive £200 a year, with allowance of £66 13s. for house rent.

Italy. - Members of the Legislature receive no payment, although attempts have been made from 1862 onwards to introduce payment of members. It was last brought forward in 1908, the amount suggested being 24s. for every sitting attended. Japan. - Members of the House of Representatives (379) and non-hereditary members of the House of Peers receive £210 a year, besides travelling expenses.

Mexico. - Both senators (56) and representatives (340) receive $3000 a year.

Netherlands. - Members of the First Chamber (50) not residing in the Hague receive 16s. 8d. a day during the session; members of the Second Chamber (100) receive £166 a year, besides travelling expenses.

Norway. - Members of the Storting (123) receive 13s. 4d. a day during the session, besides travelling expenses.

Paraguay. - Both senators and deputies receive £200 a year. Portugal. - Deputies have been unpaid since 1892, but deputies for the colonies, whose homes are in the colonies, receive £20 a month or 13s. 4d. a day during sittings of the Chamber, and £10 a month when the Chamber is not sitting.

Rumania. - Both senators (120) and deputies (1S3) receive 1 6s. 8d. for each day of attendance, besides free railway passes. Russia. - Members of the Duma receive 21s. a day during the session, and travelling expenses.

Servia. - Deputies (120) receive 12s. a day and travelling expenses.

Spain. - Members of the Legislature receive no salary, but deputies on their election receive a railway ticket for 2480 m. travel.

Sweden. - Members of both the First Chamber (150) and the Second Chamber (230) receive £66 for each session of 4 months, besides travelling expenses.

Switzerland. - Members of the State Council are paid by the canton they represent, and their salary varies according to the wealth or liberality of the canton. The salary ranges thus from I2S. 6d. to 25s. a day, the average of the whole being i6s. a day. Members of the National Council (167) are paid from Federal funds. They receive i6s. 8d. a day for each day they are present, with travelling expenses. (T. A. I.)

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

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