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PASCHAL (Paschalis), the name of two popes, and one anti-pope.

Paschal I., pope from 817 to 824, a native of Rome, was raised to the pontificate by the acclamation of the clergy, shortly after the death of Stephen IV., and before the sanction of the emperor (Louis the Pious) had been obtained - a circumstance for which it was one of his first cares to apologize. His relations with the imperial house, however, never became cordial; and he was also unsuccessful in winning the sympathy of the Roman nobles. He died in Rome while the imperial commissioners were investigating the circumstances under which two important Roman personages had been seized at the Lateran, blinded and afterwards beheaded; Paschal had shielded the murderers but denied all personal complicity in their crime. The Roman people refused him the honour of burial within the church of St Peter, but he now holds a place in the Roman calendar (May i6). The church of St Cecilia in Trastevere was restored and St Maria in Dominica rebuilt by him; he also built the church of St Prassede. The successor of Paschal I. was Eugenius 11. (L. D.*)

For Pachal II please see article Paschal II

Paschal III., anti-pope from 1164 to 1168, was elected the successor of Victor IV. on the 22nd of April 1164. He was an aged aristocrat, Guido of Crema. Recognized at once by the emperor Frederick I. he soon lost the support of Burgundy, but the emperor crushed opposition in Germany, and gained the cooperation of Henry II. of England. Supported by the victorious imperial army, Paschal was enthroned at St Peter's on the 22nd of July 1167, and Pope Alexander III., became a fugitive. Sudden imperial reverses, however, made Paschal glad in the end to hold so much as the quarter on the right bank of the Tiber, where he died on the 20th of September 1168. He was succeeded by the anti-pope Callixtus III.

See A. Hauck, Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands, Bd. IV. (Leipzig, 1903, 259-276) ; H. Bohmer in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopddie, Bd. XIV., 724 seq.; and Lobkowtiz, Statistik der Pdpste (Freiburg, i. B. 1905). (W. W. R.*)

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

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