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PANYASIS (more correctly, Panyassis), of Halicarnassus,' Greek epic poet, uncle or cousin of Herodotus, flourished about 470 B.C. He was put to death by the tyrant Lygdamis (c. 454). His chief poems were the Hcraclcias in 14 books, describing the adventures of Heracles in various parts of the world, and the lonica in elegiacs, giving an account of the founding and settle-' ' ment of the Ionic colonies in Asia Minor. Although not much' , esteemed in his own time, which was unfavourable to epic poetry, he was highly thought of by later critics, some of whom assigned him the next place to Homer (see Quintilian, Inst. oral. X. I. 54). The few extant fragments show beauty and fullness of i expression, and harmonious rhythm.

Fragments in G. Kinkel, Epic. poet, fragmenta (1877), ed. separ- , ately by J. P. Tzschirner (1842); F. P. Funcke, De Panyasuiis vita I (1837); R. Kra.uiise, De Panyasside (1891). I PAOLI, CESARE (i 840-1 002), Italian historian and palaeo- I grapher, son of senator Baldassare Paoli, was born and educated I in Florence. At the age of twenty-one he was given an appoint- 1 ment in the record office of his native city; from 1865 to 1871 he was attached to the Archives of Sienna, but eventually returned ! to Florence. In 1874 he was appointed first professor of palaeo- j graphy and diplomatics at the Istituto di Studii Superiori in , Florence, where he continued to work at the interpretation of MSS. In 1SS7 he became editor of the Archivio storico italiano, I to which he himself contributed numerous articles. His works ' consist of a large number of historical essays, studies on palaeography, transcriptions of state and other papers, re'views, etc.

See C. Lupi, " Cesare Paoli," in the Archivio storico italiano, vol. xxix. (1902), with a complete list of his works.

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

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