OPPIAN (Gr. 'OTrTTtai/os), the name of the authors of two (or three) didactic poems in Greek hexameters, formerly identified, but now generally regarded as two different persons, (i) Oppian of Corycus (or Anabarzus) in Cilicia, who fiourished in the reign of Marcus Aurehus (emperor a.d, 161-180). According to an anonymous biographer, his father, having incurred the displeasure of Lucius Verus, the colleague of Aurehus, by neglecting to pay his respects to him when he visited the town, was banished to Malta. Oppian, who had accompanied his father into exile, returned after the death of Verus (169) and went on a visit to Rome. Here he presented his poems to Aurelius, who was so pleased with them that he gave the author a piece of gold for each hne, took him into favour and pardoned his father. Oppian subsequently returned to his native country, but died of the plague shortly afterwards, at the early age of thirty. His contemporaries erected a statue in his honour, with an inscription which is still extant, containing a lament for his premature death and a eidogy of his precocious genius. His poem on fishing (H alieulica) , of about 3500 lines, dedicated to Aurelius and his son Commodus, is still extant. (2) Oppian of Apamea (or Pella) in Syria. His extant poem on hunting iCynegetica) is dedicated to the emperor Caracalla, so that it must have been written after 211. It consists of about 2150 lines, and is divided into four books, the last of which seems incomplete. The author evidently knew the Halientica, and perhaps intended his poem as a supplement. Like his namesake, he shows considerable knowledge of his subject and close observation of nature; but in style and poetical merit he is inferior to him. His versification also is less correct. The improbabOity of there having been two poets of the same name, writing on subjects so closely akin and such near contemporaries, may perhaps be explained by assuming that the real name of the author of the Cyncgetica was not Oppian, but that he has been confounded with his predecessor. In any case, it seems clear that the two were not identical.
A third poem on bird-catching (Ixeutlca, from i^os, bird-lime), also formerly attributed to an Oppian, is lost; a paraphrase in Greek prose by a certain Eutecnius is extant. The author is probably one Dionysius, who is mentioned by SuJdas as the author of a treatise on stones (Litkiaca).
The chief modern editions are J. G. Schneider (1776); F. S. Lehrs (1846); U. C. Busseraaker (Scholia, 1849); (Cytiegetica) P. Boudreaux (1908). The anonymous biography referred to above will be found in A. Westermann's Biographi Graeci (1845). On the subject generally see \. Martin, Etudes sur la vie et les ceuvres d'Oppien de Cilicie (1863); A. Ausfeld, De Oppiano ei scriptis sub ejus nomine traditis (1876). There are translations of the Halientica, in English by Diaper and Jones (1722), and in French by E. J. Bourquin (1877).
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)