MUZIANO, GIROLAMO (1528-1592), Italian painter, was born at Acquafredda, near Brescia, in 1528. Under Romanino, an imitator of Titian, he studied his art, designing and colouring according to the principles of the Venetian school. But it was not until he had left his native place, still in early youth, and had repaired to Rome about 1550, that he came into notice. There his pictures soon gained for him the surname of II Giovane de' paesi (the young man of the landscapes); chestnut-trees are predominant in these works. He next tried the more elevated style of historical painting. He imitated Michelangelo in giving great prominence to the anatomy of his figures, and became fond of painting persons emaciated by abstinence or even disease. His great picture of the " Resurrection of Lazarus " at once established his fame. Michelangelo praised it, and pronounced its author one of the first artists of that age. It was placed in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore, but was afterwards transferred to the Quirinal Palace. Muziano, with dogged perseverance (at one time he shaved his head, so as not to be tempted to go out of doors), continued to proceed in the path on which he had entered. He grew excellent in depicting foreign and military costumes, and in introducing landscapes into his historical pieces after the manner of Titian. Mosaic working also occupied his attention while he was employed as superintendent at the Vatican; and it became under his hands a perfect imitation of painting. His ability and industry soon gained for him a handsome fortune. Part of this he expended in assisting to found the Academy of St Luke in Rome. He died in 1592, and was buried in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore.
Many of Muziano's works are in the churches and palaces of Rome; he also worked in Oryieto and Loreto. In Santa Maria degli Angeli, Rome, is one of his chief works, " St Jerome preaching to Monks in the Desert " ; his " Circumcision " is in the church of the Gesu, his " Ascension " in the Araceli, and his " St Francis receiving the Stigmata " in the church of the Conception. A picture by him, representing Christ washing the feet of His disciples, is in the cathedral of Reims.
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)