MUNDAS. The Munda (Munda) family is the least numerous of the linguistic families of India. It comprises several dialects spoken in the two Chota Nagpur plateaux, the adjoining districls of Madras and the Central Provinces, and in the Mahadeo hills. The number of speakers of the various dialects, according to the census of 1901, are as follow: Santali, 1,795,113; Mundari, 460,744; Bhumij, 111,304; Birhar, 526; Koda, 23,873; Ho, 371,860; Tun, 3880; Asuri, 4894; Korwa, 16,442; Korku, 87,675; Kharia, 82,506; Juang, 10,853; Savara, 157,136; Gadaba, 37,230; total, 3,164,036. Santali, Mundari, Bhumij, Birhar, Koda, Ho, Tun, Asuri and Korwa are only siighlly differing forms of one and the same language, which can be called Kherwari, a name borrowed from Santali Iradition. Kherwari is the principal Munda language, and quite 88% of all the speakers of Munda longues belong lo it. The Korwa dialect, spoken in the western part of Chota Nagpur, connects Kherwari with the remaining Munda languages. Of Ihese il is mosl closely relaled lo the Kurku language of the Mahadeo hills in the Cenlral Provinces. Kurku, in ils lurn, in important poinls agrees with Kharia and Juang, and Kharia leads over to Savara and Gadaba. The Iwo lasl-menlioned forms of speech, which are spoken in the north-easl of the Madras Presidency, have been much influenced by Dravidian languages.
The Munda dialecls are nol in sole possession of the lerrilory where Ihey are spoken. They are, as a rule, only found in the hills and jungles, while Ihe plains and valleys are inhabiled by people speaking some Aryan language. When brought into close contacl with Aryan tongues the Munda forms of speech are apt to give way, and in the course of time they have been partly superseded by Aryan dialecls. There are accordingly some Aryanized Iribes in norlhern India who have formerly belonged lo the Munda slock. Such are the Cheros of Behar and Chota Nagpur, the Kherwars, who are found in the same localities, in Mirzapur and elsewhere, the Savaras, who formerly extended as far north as Shahabad, and others. It seems possible lo Irace an old Munda element in some Tibeto-Burman dialecls spoken in the Himalayas from Bashahr easlwards.
By race the Mundas are Dravidians, and their language was likewise long considered as a member of the Dravidian family. Max Muller was the first to dislinguish the two families. He also coined the name Munda for the smaller of them, which has later on often been spoken of under other denominations, such as Kolarian and Kherwarian. The Dravidian race is generally considered as the aboriginal population of soulhern India. The Mundas, who do nol appear lo have extended much farther towards the south than at presenl, must have mixed with the Dravidians from very early times. The so-called Nahali dialed of the Mahadeo hills seems lo have been originally a Munda form of speech which has come under Dravidian influence, and finally passed under the spell of Aryan longues. The same is perhaps the case with the numerous dialects spoken by the Bhils. Al all evenls, Munda languages have apparently been spoken over a wide area in central and north India. They were Ihen early superseded by Dravidian and Aryan dialecls, and al the present day only scanty remnanls are found in the hills and jungles of Bengal and the Cenlral Provinces.
Though the Munda family is not connected wilh any olher languages in India proper, it does not form an isolaled group. It belongs to a widely spread family, which extends from India in the west to Easter Island in the easlern Pacific in the easl. In the first place, we find a connected language spoken by the Khasis of the Khasi hills in Assam. Then follow the MonKhmer languages of Farther India, the dialecls spoken by the aboriginal inhabilants of the Malay Peninsula, the Nancowry of the Nicobars, and, finally, the numerous dialecls of Auslronesia, viz. Indonesic, Melanesic, Polynesic, and so on. Among the various members of Ihis vast group the Munda languages are most closely related to the Mon-Khmer family of Farther India. Kurku, Kharia, Juang, Savara and Gadaba are more closely related lo lhal family lhan is Kherwari, the principal Munda form of speech.
We do not know if the Mundas entered India from wilhoul.
If so, they can only have immigrated from the east. At all events they must have been settled in India from a very early period. The Sabaras, the ancestors of the Savaras, are already mentioned in old Vedic literature. The Munda languages seem to have been influenced by Dravidian and Aryan forms of speech. In most characteristics, however, they differ widely from the neighbouring tongues.
The Munda languages abound in vowels, and also possess a richly developed system of consonants. Like the Dravidian languages, they avoid beginning a word with more than one consonant. While those latter forms of speech shrink from pronouncing a short consonant at the end of words, the Mundas have the opposite tendency, viz. to shorten such sounds still more. The usual stopped consonants viz. k, c (i.e. English ch), t and p are formed by stopping the current of breath at different points in the mouth, and then letting it pass out with a kind of explosion. In the Munda language this operation can be abruptly checked half-way, so that the breath does not touch the organs of speech in passing out. The result is a sound that makes an abrupt impression on the ear, and has been described as an abrupt tone. Such sounds are common in the Munda languages. They are usually written k', c', t' and p'. Similar sounds are also found in the Mon-Khmer languages and in Indo-Chinese.
The vowels of consecutive syllables to a certain extent approach each other in sound. Thus in Kherwari the open sounds a (nearly English a in all) and a (the a in care) agree with each other and not with the corresponding close sounds o (the o in pole) and e (the e in pen). The Santali passive suffix ok' accordingly becomes dk' after a or d ; compare sdn-dk', go, but dal-ok', to be struck.
Words are formed from monosyllabic bases by means of various additions, suffixes (such as are added after the base), prefixes (which Precede the base) and infixes (which are inserted into the base itself), uffixes play a great r61e in the inflexion of words, while prefixes and infixes are of greater importance as formative additions. Compare Kurku k-on, Savara on, son ; Kharia ro-mong, Kherwari mu, nose ; Santali bar, to fear; bo-to-r, fear; dal, to strike; da-pa-l, to strike each other.
The various classes of words are not clearly distinguished. The same base can often be used as a noun, an adjective or a verb. The words simply denote some being, object, quality, action or the like, but they do not tell us how they are conceived.
Inflexion is effected in the usual agglutinative way by means of additions which are " glued " or joined to the unchanged base. In many respects, however, Munda inflexion has struck out peculiar lines. Thus there is no grammatical distinction of gender. Nouns can be divided into two classes, viz. those that denote animate beings and those that denote inanimate objects respectively. There are three numbers the singular, the dual and the plural. On the other hand, there are no real cases, at least in the most typical Munda, languages. The direct and the indirect object are indicated by means of certain additions to the verb. Certain relations in time and space, however, are indicated by means of suffixes, which have probably from the beginning been separate words with a definite meaning. The genitive, which can be considered as an adjective preceding the governing word, is often derived from such forms denoting locality. Compare Santali hdr-rd, in a man; Mr-ran, of a man.
Higher numbers are counted in twenties, and not in tens as in the Dravidian languages.
The pronouns abound in different forms. Thus there are double sets of the dual and the plural of the pronoun of the first person, one including and the other excluding the person addressed. The Rev. A. Nottrott aptly illustrates the importance of this distinction by remarking how it is necessary to use the exclusive form if telling the servant that " we shall dine at seven." Otherwise the speaker will invite the servant to partake of the meal. In addition to the usual personal pronouns there are also short forms, used as suffixes and infixes, which denote a direct object, an indirect object, or a genitive. There is a corresponding richness in the case of demonstrative pronouns. Thus the pronoun " that " in Santali has different forms to denote a living being, an inanimate object, something seen, something heard, and so on. On the other hand, there is no relative pronoun, the want being supplied by the use of indefinite forms of the verbal bases, which can in this connexion be called relative participles.
The most characteristic feature of Munda grammar is the verb, especially in Kherwari. Every independent word can perform the function of a verb, and every verbal form can, in its turn, be used as a noun or an adjective. The bases of the different tenses can therefore be described as indifferent words which can be used as a noun, as an adjective, and as a verb, but which are in reality none of them. Each denotes simply the root meaning as modified by time. Thus in Santali the base ddl-ket', struck, which is formed from the base dal, by adding the suffix kef of the active past, can be used as a noun (compare dal-ket'-ko, strikers, those that struck), as an adjective (compare dal-ket'-hdr, struck man, the man that struck), and as a verb. In the last case it is necessary to add an a if the action really takes place; thus, dal-kef-a, somebody struck.
It has already been remarked that the cases of the direct and indirect object are indicated by adding forms of the personal pronouns to the verb. Such pronominal affixes are inserted before the assertive particle a. Thus the affix denoting a direct object of the third person singular is e, and by inserting it in dal-kef-a we arrive at a form dal-ked-e-a, somebody struck him. Similar affixes can be added to denote that the object or subject of an action belongs to somebody. Thus Santali hap&n-in-e dal-ket'-tako-tin-a, son-my-he struck-theirs-mine, my son who belongs to me struck theirs.
In a sentence such as har kord-e dal-ked-e-a, man boy-he struckhim, the man struck the boy, the Santals first put together the ideas man, boy, and a striking in the past. Then the e tells us that the striking affects the boy, and finally the -a indicates that the whole action really takes place. It will be seen that a single verbal form in this way often corresponds to a whole sentence or a series of sentences in other languages. If we add that the most developed Munda languages possess different bases for the active, the middle and the passive, that there are different causal, intensive and reciprocal bases, which are conjugated throughout, and that the person of the subject is often indicated in the verb, it will be understood that Munda conjugation presents a somewhat bewildering aspect. It is, however, quite regular throughout, and once the mind becomes accustomed to these peculiarities, they do not present any difficulty to the understanding.
BIBLIOGRAPHY. Max Muller, Letter to Chevalier Bunsen on the Classification of the Turanian Languages. Reprint from Chr. K. J. Bunsen, Christianity and Mankind, vol. iii. (London, 1854), especially pp. 175 and sqq.; Friedrich Muller, Grundriss der Sprachvnssenschaft, vol. iii. part i. (Wien, 1884), pp. 106 and sqq., vol. iv. part i. (Wien, 1888), p. 229; Sten Konow, Munda and Dravidian Languages " in Grierson's Linguistic Survey of India, iv. i and teq. (Calcutta, 1906). (S. K.)
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)