MOQUEGUA, a maritime province of southern Peru, bounded N. by the departments of Arequipa and Puno, and S. by the republic of Chile. Area, 5550 sq. m.; pop. (1906 estimate), 31,920. The province extends from the Pacific coast eastward to the Cordillera Occidental, which forms the boundary line with Puno and the republic of Bolivia. Eastern Moquegua is volcanic, and is broken by the high range that forms the western rim of the Titicaca basin. Among the volcanoes in the province are Tutupacu, the last eruption of which occurred in 1802, Huaynaputina and Hachalayhua, which were in violent eruption in 1606, Coropuna, Ornate, Ubinas and Candarave the last three still showing signs of activity. This region is also subject to severe earthquake shocks. On the lower slopes of the Cordillera there are fertile irrigated valleys which produce grapes and olives for commercial purposes, and a considerable variety of fruits, cereals and vegetables for local consumption. The best-known grape-producing districts are Moquegua (capital) and Locumba the product being converted into wine and brandy for export. The capital is Moquegua (pop. about 5000 in 1906), in the upper valley of the Ilo River, 4500 ft. above sea-level, and 65 m. by rail from the small port of Ilo on the Pacific coast.
Moquegua was formerly one of the three provinces forming a department of the same name. The other two provinces (Tacna and Arica) were held for indemnity by Chile after the war of 1870-1883 with the understanding (treaty of Ancon, March 8, 1884) that at the expiration of ten years a plebiscite should be taken in the two provinces to determine whether they should remain with Chile, or return to Peru the country to which they should be annexed to pay the other 10,000,000 pesos. Chile did not comply with this treaty agreement, and in 1910 still held both provinces.
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)