LOVEDALE, a mission station in the Victoria East division of the Cape province, South Africa. It lies 1720 ft. above the sea on the banks of the Tyumie (Chumie) tributary of the Keiskama river, some 2 m. N. of Alice, a town 88 m. N.W. by rail of East London. The station was founded in 1824 by the Glasgow Missionary Society and was named after Dr John Love, one of the leading members of, and at the time secretary to, the society. The site first chosen was in the Ncera valley. But in 1834 the mission buildings were destroyed by the Kaffirs. On rebuilding, the station was removed somewhat farther north to the banks of the Tyumie. In 1846 the work at Lovedale was again interrupted, this time by the War of the Axe (see CAPE COLONY: History). On this occasion the buildings were converted into a fort and garrisoned by regular troops. Once more, in 1850, the Kaffirs threatened Lovedale and made an attack on" the neighbouring Fort Hare, 1 built during the previous war.
Until 1841 the missionaries had devoted themselves almost entirely to evangelistic work; in that year the Lovedale Missionary Institute was founded by the Rev. W. Govan, who, save for brief intervals, continued at its head until 1870. He was then succeeded by the Rev. James Stewart (1831-1905), who had joined the mission in 1867, having previously (1861-1863), and partly in company with David Livingstone, explored the Zambezi regions. To Stewart, who remained at the head of the institute till his death, is due the existing organization at Lovedale. The institute, in addition to its purely church work in which no sectarian tests are allowed provides for the education of natives of both sexes in nearly all branches of learning (Stewart discontinued the teaching of Greek and Latin, adopting English as the classic); it also takes European scholars, no colour distinction being allowed in any department of the work. The institute gives technical training in many subjects and maintains various industries, including such diverse enterprises as farming and printing-works. It also maintains a hospital. The school buildings rival in accommodation and completeness those of the schools in large English cities. The sum paid in fees by scholars (of whom fully nine-tenths were Kaffirs) in the period 1841-1908 was 84,000. The educational and industrial methods initiated at Lovedale have been widely adopted by other 1 This fort was named after Colonel John Hare (d. 1846) of the 27th Regiment, from 1838 lieutenant-governor of the eastern provinces and commander of the first division of the field force in the War of the Axe.
missionary bodies. Lovedale is now a branch of the work of the United Free Church of Scotland.
See R. Young, African Wastes Reclaimed and Illustrated in the Story of the Lovedale Mission (London, 1902); J. Stewart, Lovedale, Past and Present (London, 1884), and Dawn in the Dark Continent (London, 1903) ; J. Wells, Stewart of Lovedale (London, 1908).
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)