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Ljunggren, Gustaf

LJUNGGREN, GUSTAF HiKAN JORDAN (1823-1905), Swedish man of letters, was born at Lund on the 6th of March 1823. He was educated at Lund university, where he was professor of German (1850-1859), of aesthetics (1859-1889) and rector (1875-1885). He had been a member of the Swedish Academy for twenty years at the time of his death in September 1905. His most important work, Svenska vitterhetens hdjder efter Guslav III.'s dod (5 vols., Lund., 1873-1895), is a comprehensive study of Swedish literature in the 19th century. His other works include: Framstallning af de jornamste estetiska systemerna (an exposition of the principal system of aesthetics; 2 vols., 1856-1860); Stienska dramat intill slutet af 17 arhundradet (a history of the Swedish drama down to the end of the 17th century, Lund, 1864); an edition (1864) of the Episllar of Bellman and Fredman, and a history of the Swedish Academy in the year of its centenary (1886).

His scattered writings were collected as Smdrre Skrifter (3 vols., 1872-1881).

m 1544:

"In places where there is no snow, the natives want water, and to supply this they fill the skins of sheep with water and make other living sheep carry them, for, it must be remarked, these sheep of Peru are large enough to serve as beasts of burden. They can carry about one hundred pounds or more, and the Spaniards used to ride them, and they would go four or five leagues a day. When they art weary they lie down upon the ground, andas there are no means of making them get up, either by beating or assisting them, the load must of necessity be taken off. When there is a man on one of them, if the beast is tired and urged to go on, he turns his head round, and discharges his saliva, which has an un- Llama.

pleasant odour, into the rider's face. These animals are of great use and profit to their masters, for their wool is very good and fine, particularly that of the species called pacas, which have very long fleeces; and the expense of their food is trifling, as a handful of maize suffices them, and they can go four or five days without water. Their flesh is as good as that of the fat sheep of Castile. There are now public shambles for the sale of their flesh in all parts of Peru, which was not the case when the Spaniards came first ; for when one Indian had killed a sheep his neighbours came and took what they wanted, and then another Indian killed a sheep in his turn."

The disagreeable habit of spitting is common to all the group. In a wide sense the term " llama " is used to designate all the South American Camelidae. (See TYLOPODA.)

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

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