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LARD (Fr. lard, from Lat. laridum, bacon fat, related to Gr. XapiTOs fat, Xap6s dainty or sweet), the melted and strained fat of the common hog. Properly it is prepared from the " leaf " or fat of the bowel and kidneys, but in commerce the term as applied to products which include fat obtained from other parts of the animal and sometimes containing no " leaf " at all. Lard of various grades is made in enormous quantities by the great pork -packing houses at Chicago and elsewhere in America. "Neutral lard" is prepared at a temperature of 40-5o C. from freshly killed hogs; the finest quality, used for making oleomargarine, is got from the leaf, while the second, employed by biscuit and pastry bakers, is obtained from the fat of the back. Steam heat is utilized in extracting inferior qualities, such as "choice lard" and "prime steam lard," the source of the latter being any fat portion of the animal. Lard is a pure white fat of a butter-like consistence; its specific gravity is about 0-93, its solidifying point about 27-3o C., and its melting point 35-4SC. It contains about 60% of olein and 40% of palmitin and stearin. Adulteration is common, the substances used including "stearin" both of beef and of mutton, and vegetable oils such as cotton seed oil: indeed, mixtures have been sold as lard that contain nothing but such adulterants. In the pharmacopoeia lard figures as adeps and is employed as a basis for ointments. Benzoated lard, used for the same purpose, is prepared by heating lard with 3% of powdered benzoin for two hours; it keeps better than ordinary lard, but has slightly irritant, properties.

Lard oil is the limpid, clear, colourless oil expressed by hydraulic pressure and gentle heat from lard; it is employed for burning and for lubrication. Of the solid residue, lard " stearine," the best qualities are utilized for making oleomargarine, the inferior ones in the manufacture of candles.

See J. Lewkowitsch, Oils, Fats and Waxes (London, 1909).

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

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