LANARKSHIRE, a south-western county of Scotland, bounded N. by the shires of Dumbarton and Stirling, E. by Linlithgowshire, Mid-Lothian and Peeblesshire, S. by Dumfriesshire and W. by the counties of Ayr, Renfrew and Dumbarton. Its area is 879 sq. m. (562,821 acres). It may be described as embracing the valley of the Clyde; and, in addition to the gradual descent from the high land in the south, it is also characterized by a gentle slope towards both banks of the river. The shire is divided into three wards, the Upper, comprising all the southern section, or more than half the whole area (over 330,000 acres); the Middle, with Hamilton for its chief town, covering fully 190,000 acres; and the Lower, occupying the northern area of about 40,000 acres. The surface falls gradually from the uplands in the south to the Firth of Clyde. The highest hills are nearly all on or close to the borders of Peeblesshire and Dumfriesshire, and include Culter Fell (2454 ft.) and Lowther Hill (2377). The loftiest heights exclusively belonging to Lanarkshire are Green Lowther (2403), Tinto (2335), Ballencleuch Law (2267), Rodger Law (2257), Dun Law (2216), Shiel Dod (2190), Dungrain Law (2186) and. Comb Law (2107). The principal rivers are the Clyde and its head waters and affluents (on the right, the Medwin, Mouse, South Colder, North Calder and Kelvin; on the left, the Douglas, Nethan, Avon, Rotten Calder and Cart). There are no lochs of considerable size, the few sheets of water in the north Woodend Reservoir, Bishop Loch, Hogganfield Loch, Woodend Loch, Lochend Loch mainly feeding the Monkland and the Forth and Clyde Canals. The most famous natural features are the Falls of Clyde at Bonnington, Corra, Dundaff and Stonebyres.
Geology. The southern upland portion is built up of Silurian and Ordovician rocks; the northern lower-lying tracts are formed of Carboniferous and Old Red Sandstone rocks. Ordovician strata cross the county from S.W. to N.E. in a belt 5-7 m. in breadth which is brought up by a fault against the Old Red and the Silurian on the northern side. This fault runs by Lamington, Roberton and Crawfordjphn. The Ordovician rocks lie in a synclinal fold with beds of Caradoc age in the centre flanked by graptolitic shales, grits and conglomerates, including among the last-named the local " Haggis-rock "; the well-known lead mines of Leadhills are worked in these formations. Silurian shales and sandstones, etc., extend south of the Ordovician belt to the county boundary ; and again, on the northern side of the Ordovician belt two small tracts appear through the Old Red Sandstone on the crests of anticlinal folds. The Old Red Sandstone covers an irregular tract north of the Ordovician belt ; a lower division consisting of sandstone, conglomerates and mud-stones is the most extensively developed; above this is found a series of contemporaneous porphyrites and melaphyres, conformable upon the lower division in the west of the county but are not so in the east. An upper series of sandstones and grits is seen for a short distance west of Lamington. Lanark stands on the Old Red Sandstone and the Falls of Clyde occur in the same rocks. Economically the most important geological feature is the coal basin of the Glasgow district. The axis of this basin lies in a N.E.-S.W. direction; in the central part, including Glasgow, Airdrie, Motherwell, Wishaw, Carluke, lie the coal-measures, .consisting of sandstones, shales, marls and fireclays with seams of coal and ironstone. There are eleven beds of workable coal, the more important seams being the Ell, Main, Splint, Pyotshaw and Virtuewell. Underlying the coal-measures is the Millstone Grit seen on the northern side between Glenboig and Hogganfield here the fireclays of Garnkirk, Gartcosh and Glenboig are worked and on the south and south-east of the coal-measures, but not on the western side, because it is there cut out by a fault. Beneath the last-named formation comes the Carboniferous Limestone series with thin coals and ironstones, and again beneath this is the Calciferous Sandstone series which in the southeast consists of sandstones, shales, etc., but in the west the greater part of the series is composed 9f interbedded volcanic rocks porphyrites and melaphyres. It will be observed that in general the younger formations lie nearer the centre of the basin and the older ones crop out around them. Besides the volcanic rocks mentioned there are intrusive basalts in the Carboniferous rocks like that in the neighbourhood of Shotts, and the smaller masses at Hogganfield near Glasgow and elsewhere. Volcanic necks are found in the Carluke and Kilcadzow districts, marking the vents of former volcanoes and several dikes of Tertiary age traverse the older rocks. An intrusion of pink felsite in early Old Red times has been the cause of Tinto Hill. Evidences of the Glacial period are abundant in the form of kames and other deposits of gravel, sand and boulder clay. The ice in flowing northward and southward from the higher ground took an easterly direction when it reached the lower ground. In the lower reaches of the Clyde the remains of old beaches at 25, 50 and 100 ft. above the present sea-level are to be observed.
Climate and Agriculture. The rainfall averages 42 in. annually, being higher in the hill country and lower towards the north. The temperature for the year averages 48 F., for January 38 and for July 59. The area under grain has shown a downward tendency since 1880. Oats is the principal crop, but barley and wheat are also grown. Potatoes and turnips are raised on a large scale. In the Lower Ward market-gardening has increased considerably, and the quantity of vegetables, grapes and tomatoes reared under glass has reached great proportions. An ancient industry in the vale of the Clyde for many miles below Lanark is the cultivation of fruit, several of the orchards being said to date from the time of Bede. The apples and pears are of good repute. There has been a remarkable extension in the culture of strawberries, hundreds of acres being laid down in beds. The sheep walks in the upper and middle wards are heavily stocked and the herds of cattle are extensive, the favoured breeds being Ayrshire and a cross between this and " improved Lanark." Dairy-farming flourishes, the cheeses of Carnwath and Lesmahagow being in steady demand. Clydesdale draught-horses are of high class. They are supposed to have been bred from Flanders horses imported early in the 18th century by the 5th duke of Hamilton. Most of the horses are kept for agricultural work,_bu1 a considerable number of unbroken horses and mares are maintained for stock. Pigs are numerous, being extensively reared by the miners. The largest farms are situated in the Upper Ward, but the general holding runs from 50 to 100 acres. More than 21,000 acres are under wood.
Other Industries. The leading industries are those in connexion with the rich and extensive coal and iron field to the east and southeast of Glasgow; the shipbuilding at Goyan and Partick and in Glasgow harbour; the textiles at Airdrie, Blantyre, Hamilton, ^anark, New Lanark, Rutherglen and Glasgow; engineering at ^ambuslang, Carluke, Coatbridge, Kinning Park, Motherwell and Wishaw, and the varied and flourishing manufactures centred in and around Glasgow.
Communications. In the north of the county, where population is most dense and the mineral field exceptionally rich, railway facilities are highly developed, there being for IO or 12 m. around Glasgow quite a network of lines. The Caledonian Railway Company's main me to the south runs through the whole length of the shire, sending off branches at several points, especially at Carstairs Junction. The North British Railway Company serves various towns in the ower and middle wards and its lines to Edinburgh cross the northwestern corner and the north of the county. Only in the immediate neighbourhood of Glasgow does the Glasgow and South Western system compete for Lanarkshire traffic, though it combines with the Caledonian to work the Mid-Lanarkshire and Ayrshire railway. The Monkland Canal in the far north and the Forth and Clyde Canal in the north and north-west carry a considerable amount of goods, and before the days of railways afforded one of the principal means of communication between east and west.
Population and Administration. The population amounted in 1891 to 1,105,899 and in 1901 to 1,339,327. or 1523 persons to the sq. m. Thus though only tenth in point of extent, it is much the most populous county in Scotland, containing within its bounds nearly one-third of the population of the country. In 1901 there were 104 persons speaking Gaelic only, and 26,905 speaking Gaelic and English. The chief towns, with populations in 1901, apart from Glasgow, are Airdrie (22,288), Cambuslang (12,252), Coatbridge (36,991), Govan (82,174), Hamilton (32,775)- Kinning Park (13,852), Larkhall (11,879), Motherwell (30,418), Partick (54,298), Rutherglen (17,220), Shettleston (12,154), Wishaw (20,873). Among smaller towns are Bellshill, Carluke, Holytown, Lanark, Stonefield, Tollcross and Uddingston; and Lesmahagow and East Kilbride arcpopulous villages and mining centres. The county is divided into six parliamentary divisions: North-east, North-west, Mid and South Lanark, Govan and Partick each returning one member. The royal burghs are Glasgow, Lanark and Rutherglen; the municipal and police burghs Airdrie, Biggar, Coatbridge, Glasgow, Govan, Hamilton, Kinning Park, Lanark, Motherwell, Partick, Rutherglen and Wishaw. Glasgow returns seven members to Parliament; Airdrie, Hamilton and Lanark belong to the Falkirk group and Rutherglen to the Kilmarnock group of parliamentary burghs. Lanarkshire is a sheriffdom, whose sheriff-principal is confined to his judicial duties in the county, and he has eight substitutes, five of whom sit constantly in Glasgow, and one each at Airdrie, Hamilton and Lanark. The shire is under school-board jurisdiction, many schools earning grants for higher education. For advanced education, besides the university and many other institutions in Glasgow there are a high school in Hamilton, and technical schools at Coatbridge and Wishaw. The county council expends the " residue " grant in supporting lectures and classes in agriculture and agricultural chemistry, mining, dairying, cookery, laundry work, nursery and poultry-keeping, in paying fees and railway fares and providing bursaries for technical students, and in subsidizing science and ait and technical classes in day and evening schools. A director of technical education is maintained by the council. Lanark, Motherwell and Biggar entrust their shares of the grant to the county council, and Coatbridge and Airdrie themselves subsidize science and art and evening classes and continuation schools.
History. At an early period Lanarkshire was inhabited by a Celtic tribe, the Damnonii, whose territory was divided by the wall of Antoninus between the Forth and Clyde (remains of which are found in the parish of Cadder) , but who were never wholly subjugated by the Romans. Traces of their fortifications, mounds and circles exist, while stone axes, bronze celts, querns and urns belonging to their age are occasionally unearthed. Of the Romans there are traces in the camp on Beattock summit near Elvanfoot, in the fine bridge over the Mouse near Lanark, in the road to the south of Strathaven, in the wall already mentioned and in the coins and other relics that have been dug up. After their departure the country which included Lanarkshire formed part of the kingdom of Strathclyde, which, in the 7th century, was subdued by Northumbrian Saxons, when great numbers of the Celts migrated into Wales. The county once embraced a portion of Renfrewshire, but this was disjoined in the time of Robert III. The shire was then divided into two wards, the Over (with Lanark as its chief town) and the Nether (with Rutherglen as its capital). The present division into three wards was not effected till the 18th century. Independently of Glasgow, Lanarkshire has not borne any part continuously in the general history of Scotland, but has been the scene of several exciting episodes. Many of Wallace's daring deeds were performed in the county, Queen Mary met her fate at Langside (1568) and the Covenanters received constant support from the people, defeating Claverhouse at Drumclog (1679), but suffering defeat themselves at Both well Brig ( 1 679) .
See W. Hamilton, Description of the Sherijfdoms of Lanark and Renfrew, Maitland Club (1831); C. V. Irving and A. Murray, The Upper Ward of Lanarkshire (Glasgow, 1864); The Clydesdale Stud Book (Glasgow); W. A. Cowan, History of Lanark (Lanark, 1867); Extracts from the Records of the Burgh of Lanark (Glasgow, 1893).
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)