Lachmann, Karl Konrad Friedrich Wilhelm
LACHMANN, KARL KONRAD FRIEDRICH WILHELM (1793-1851), German philologist and critic, was born at Brunswick on the 4th of March 1793. He studied at Leipzig and Gottingen, devoting himself mainly to philological studies. In 1815 he joined the Prussian army as a volunteer chasseur and accompanied his detachment to Paris, but did not encounter the enemy. In 1816 he became an assistant master in the Friedrich Werder gymnasium at Berlin, and a privat-docentat the university. The same summer he became one of the principal masters in the Friedrichs-Gymnasium of Konigsberg, where he assisted his colleague, the Germanist Friedrich Karl Kopke (1785-1865) with his edition of Rudolf von Ems' Barlaam und Josaphat (1818), and also assisted his friend in a contemplated edition of the works of Walther von der Vogelweide. In January 1818 he became professor extraordinarius of classical philology in the university of Konigsberg, and at the same time began to lecture on Old German grammar and the Middle High German poets. He devoted himself during the following seven years to an extraordinarily minute study of those subjects, and in 1824 obtained leave of absence in order that he might search the libraries of middle and south Germany for further materials. In 1825 Lachmann was nominated extraordinary professor of classical and German philology in the university of Berlin (ordinary professor 1 82 7); and in 1830 he was admitted a member of the Academy of Sciences. The remainder of his laborious and fruitful life as an author and a teacher was uneventful. He died on the 13th of March 1851.
Lachmann, who was the translator of the first volume of P. E. Mtiller's Sagabibhothek des skandmavischen Altertums (1816), is a figure of considerable importance in the history of German philology (see Rudolf von Raumer. GeschichtedergermanischenPhilologie, 1870). In his " Habilitationsschrift " Vber die urspriingliche Gestalt des Gedichts der Nibelunge Not (1816), and still more in his review of Hagen's Nibelungen and Benecke's Bonerius, contributed in 1817 to the Jenaische Literaturzeitung he had already laid down the rules of textual criticism and elucidated the phonetic and metrical principles of Middle High German in a manner which marked a distinct advance in that branch of investigation. The rigidly scientific character of his method becomes increasingly apparent in the Auswahl aus den hochdeutschen Dichlern des dreizehnten Jahrhunderts (1820), in the edition of Hartmann's Iwein (1827), in those of Walther von der Vogelweide (1827) and Wolfram von Eschenbach (1833), in the papers " Uber das Hildebrandslied," " tJber althochdeutsche Betonung und Verskunst," " tJber den Eingang des Parzivals," and " Uber drei Bruchstticke niederrheiniseher Gedichte " published in the Abhandlungen of the Berlin Academy, and in Der Nibelunge Not und die Klage (1826, nth ed., 1892), which was followed by a critical commentary in 1836. Lachmann's Betrachtungen iiber Homer's Ilias, first published in the Abhandlungen of the Berlin Academy in 1837 and 1841, in which he sought to show that the Iliad consists of sixteen independent " lays " variously enlarged and interpolated, have had considerable influence on modern Homeric criticism (see HOMER), although his views are no longer accepted. His smaller edition of the New Testament appeared in 1 83 1 , 3rd ed. 1 846 ; the larger, in two volumes, in 1842-1850. The plan of Lachmann's edition, explained by himself in the Stud. u. Krit. of 1830, is a modification of the unaccomplished project of Bentley. It seeks to restore the most ancient reading current in Eastern MSS., using the consent of the Latin authorities (Old Latin and Greek Western Uncials) as the main proof of antiquity of a reading where the oldest Eastern authorities differ. Besides Propertius (1816), Lachmann edited Catullus (1829); Tibullus (1829); Cenesius (1834); Terentianus Maurus (1836) ; Babrius (1845) '< Avianus (1845) Gaius (1841- 1842); the Agrimensores Romani (1848-1852); Lucilius (edited after his death by Vahlen, 1876); and Lucretius (1850). The last, which was the main occupation of the closing years of his life, from 1845, was perhaps his greatest achievement, and has been characterized by Munro as " a work which will be a landmark for scholars as long as the Latin language continues to be studied." Lachmann also translated Shakespeare's sonnets (1820) and Macbeth (1829).
See M. Hertz, Karl Lachmann, eine Biographie (1851), where a full list of Lachmann's works is given; F. Leo, Rede zur Sacularfeier K. Lachmanns (1893); J. Grimm, biography in Kleine Schriften; W. Scherer in Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, xvii., and J. E. Sandys, Hist, of Classical Scholarship, iii. (1908), pp. 127-131.
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)