KAZVIN, a province and town of Persia. The province is situated N.W. of Teheran and S. of Gilan. On the W. it is bounded by Khamseh. It pays a yearly revenue of about 22,000, and contains many rich villages which produce much grain and fruit, great quantities of the latter being dried and exported.
Kazvin, the capital of the province, is situated at an elevation of 4165 ft., in 36 15' N. and 50 E., and 92 m. by road from Teheran. The city is said to have been founded in the 4th century by the Sassanian king Shapur II (309-379). It has been repeatedly damaged by earthquakes. Many of its streets and most of the magnificent buildings seen there by Chardin in 1674 and other travellers during the 17th century are in ruins. The most remarkable remains are the palace of the Safawid shahs and the mosque with its large blue-dome. In the 16th century Shah Tahmasp I. (1524-1576) made Kazvin his capital, and it remained so till Shah Abbas I. (1587-1629) transferred the seat of government to Isfahan. The town still bears the title Dar es Salteneh, " the seat of government." Kazvin has many baths and cisterns fed by underground canals. The system of irrigation formerly carried on by these canals rendered the plain of Kazvin one of the most fertile regions in Persia; now most of the canals are choked up. The city has a population of about 50,000 and a thriving transit trade, particularly since 1899 when the carriage road between Resht and Teheran with Kazvin as a half-way stage was opened under the auspices of the Russian " Enzeli-Teheran Road Company." Great quantities of rice, xv. 23 fish and silk are brought to it from Gilan for distribution in Persia and export to Turkey.
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)