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HOWRAH, a city and district of India, in the Burdwan division of Bengal. The city is situated opposite Calcutta, with which it is connected by a floating bridge. The municipal area is about ii sq. m.; pop. (1901) 157,594, showing an increase of 35 % in the decade. Since 1872 the population has almost doubled, owing to the great industrial development that has taken place. Howrah is the terminus of the East Indian railway, and also of the Bengal-Nagpur and East Coast lines. It is also the centre of 'two light railways which run to Amta and Sheakhala. Further, it is the headquarters of the jute- manufacturing industry, with many steam mills, steam presses, also cotton mills, oil mills, rope-works, iron-works and engineering works. Sibpur Engineering College lies on the outskirts of the town. There is a hospital, with a department for Europeans, and Howrah forms a suburban residence for many people who have their place of business in Calcutta.

The DISTRICT OF HOWRAH extends southwards down the right bank of the Hugli to the confluence of the river Damodar. For revenue purposes it is included within the district of Hugli. Its area is 510 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 850,514, showing an increase of 1 1 % in the decade. In addition to the two steam tramways and the East Indian railway, the district is crossed by the highlevel canal to Midnapore, which communicates with the Hugli at Ulubaria. The manufacturing industries of Howrah extend beyond the city into the district. One or two systems of draining low-lying lands are maintained by the government.

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

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