# Horse-Power

**HORSE-POWER**. The device, frequently seen in farmyards, by which the power of a horse is utilized to drive threshing or other machinery,
is sometimes described as a " horse-power," but this term usually denotes the unit in which the performance of steam and other engines is expressed, and which
is defined as the rate at which work is done when 33,000 Ib are raised one foot in one minute. This value was adopted by James Watt as the result of experiments
with strong dray-horses, but, as he was aware, it is in excess of what can be done by an average horse over a full day's work. It is equal to 746 watts. On the
metric system it is reckoned as 4500 kilogram-metres a minute, and the French cheval-vapeur is thus equal to 32,549 foot-pounds a minute, or 0-9863 of an
English horse-power, or 736 watts. The " nominal horse-power " by which engines are sometimes rated is an arbitrary and obsolescent term of indefinite
significance. An ordinary formula for obtaining it is \ j.gD'-v 1 S for highpressure engines, and -j^D 2 ^ S for condensing engines, where D is the diameter of
the piston in inches and S the length of the stroke in feet, though varying numbers are used for the divisor. The " indicated horse-power " of a reciprocating
engine is given by ASPN/ 33,000, where A is the area of the piston in square inches, S the length of the stroke in feet, P the mean pressure on the piston in Ib
per sq. in., and N the number of effective strokes per minute, namely, one for each revolution of the crank shaft if the engine is single-acting, but twice as
many if it is double-acting. The mean pressure P is ascertained from the diagram or " card " given by an indicator (see STEAM-ENGINE). In turbine engines this
method is inapplicable. A statement of indicated horse-power supplies a measure of the force acting in the cylinder of an engine, but the power available for
doing external work off the crank-shaft is Jess than this by the amount absorbed in driving the engine itself. The useful residue, known as the " actual," "
effective " or " brake " horse-power, can be directly measured by a dynamometer (q.v.) ; it amounts to about 80% of the indicated horse-power for good
condensing engines and about 85% for non-condensing engines, or perhaps a little more when the engines are of the largest sizes. When turbines, as often happens
in land practice, are directly coupled to electrical generators, their horse-power can be deduced' from the electrical output. When they are used for the
propulsion of ships recourse is had to " torsion meters " which measure the amount of twist undergone by the propeller shafts while transmitting power. Two
points are selected on the surface of the shaft at different positions along it, and the relative displacement which occur? between them round the shaft when
power is being transmitted is determined either by electrical means, as in the Denny-Johnson torsion-meter, or optically, as in the Hopkinson-Thring and
Bevis-Gibson instruments. The twist or surface-shear being proportional to the torque, the horse-power can be calculated if the modulus of rigidity of the steel
employed is known or if the amount of twist corresponding to a given power has previously been ascertained by direct experiment on the shaft before it has been
put in place.

*Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)*