Henry Charles Keith Petty Fitzmaurice
HENRY CHARLES KEITH PETTY FITZMAURICE, sth marquess of Lansdowne (b. 1845), was educated at Balliol, Oxford, where he became one of Jowett's favourite pupils. In 1869 he married the daughter of the 1st duke of Abercorn. As a member of the Liberal party he was a lord of the treasury (1869-1872), undersecretary of war (1872-1874), and under-secretary of India (1880); in 1883 he was appointed governor-general of Canada, and from 1888 to 1893 he was viceroy of India. He joined the Liberal Unionist party when Mr Gladstone proposed home rule for Ireland, and on returning to England became one of its most influential leaders. He was secretary of "state for war from 1895 to 1900, and foreign secretary from 1900101906, becoming leader of the Unionist party in the House of Lords on Lord Salisbury's death.
His brother EDMOND GEORGE FITZMAURICE, Baron Fitzmaurice (b. 1846), was educated at Trinity, Cambridge, where he took a first class in classics. Unlike Lord Lansdowne, he remained a Liberal in politics and, followed Mr Gladstone in his home rule policy. As Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice he entered the House of Commons in 1868, and was under-secretary for foreign affairs from 1882 to 1885. He then had no seat in parliament till 1898, when he was elected for the Cricklade division of Wilts, and retiring in 1905, he was created Baron Fitzmaurice of Leigh in 1906, and made under-secretary for foreign affairs in Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's ministry. In 1908 he became chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster and a member of the Liberal cabinet, but resigned his post in 1909. He devoted much time to literary work, and was the author of excellent biographies of the 1st marquess, of Sir William Petty (1895), and of Lord Granville (1905), under whom he had served at the foreign office.
For the 1st marquess, see Lord Fitzmaurice, Life of William, Earl of Shelburne (3 vols., London, 1875-1876).
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)