FYZABAD, or Faizabad, a city, district and division of India in the United Provinces. The city stands on the left bank of the river Gogra, 78 m. by rail E. of Lucknow. Pop. (1901) 75,085. To the E. of Fyzabad, and now forming a suburb, is the ancient site of Ajodhya(q.v.). Fyzabad was founded about 1730 by Sa'adat Ali Khan, the first nawab wazir of Oudh, who built a hunting-lodge here. It received its present name in the reign of his successor; and Shuja-ud-daula, the third nawab, laid out a large town and fortified it, and here he was buried. It was afterwards the residence of the Begums of Oudh, famous in connexion with the impeachment of Warren Hastings. When the court of Oudh was removed to Lucknow in 1775 all the leading merchants and bankers abandoned the place. At the census of 1869 Fyzabad contained only 37,804 inhabitants; but it is now again advancing in prosperity and population. On the outbreak of the Mutiny in 1857, the cantonment contained two regiments of infantry, a squadron of cavalry, and a light field battery of artillery - all natives. Owing to their threatening demeanour after the Meerut massacre, many of the European women and children were sheltered by one of the great landholders of Oudh, and others were sent to less disturbed parts of the country. The troops rose, as was anticipated, and although they at first permitted their officers to take boats and proceed towards Dinapur, a message was afterwards sent to a rebel force lower down the river to intercept the fugitives. Of four boats, one, having passed the rebels unnoticed, succeeded in reaching Dinapur safely. Of those in the other three boats, one alone escaped. Fyzabad is now a station for European as well as for native troops. It is the headquarters of a brigade in the 8th division of the northern army. There is a government college. Sugar-refining and trade in agricultural produce are important.
The District of Fyzabad, lying between the two great rivers Gogra and Gumti, has an area of 1740 sq. m. It is entirely alluvial and well wooded, and has a good climate. Pop. (1901) 1,225,374, an increase of .7% in the decade. The district is traversed throughout its length by the Oudh and Rohilkhand railway from Lucknow to Benares, with a branch to Allahabad. Tanda, with a population in 1901 of 19,853, has the largest production of cotton goods in Oudh.
The Division of Fyzabad has an area of 12,113 sq. m., and comprises the six districts of Fyzabad, Gonda, Bahraich, Sultanpur, Partabgarh and Bara Banki. Pop. (1901) 6,855,991, an increase of 2% in the decade.
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)