FLUORANTHENE, C15H10, also known as idryl, a hydrocarbon occurring with phenanthrene, pyrene, diphenyl, and other substances in "Stupp" fat (the fat obtained in working up the mercury ores in Idria), and also in the higher boiling fractions of the coal tar distillate. It was discovered by R. Fittig in 1878, who, with Gebhard and H. Liepmann, elucidated its constitution (see Ann., 1879, 200, p. 1). The hydrocarbons are separated from the "Stupp" by means of alcohol, the soluble portion on distillation giving first phenanthrene and then a mixture of pyrene and fluoranthene. From the tar distillate, the chrysene can be fractionally precipitated, and the fluoranthene can be separated from most of the pyrene by fractional distillation in a partial vacuum. In either case the two hydrocarbons are finally separated by fractional crystallization of their picrates, which are then decomposed by ammonia. Fluoranthene crystallizes in large slender needles or monoclinic tables, melting at 109-110° C. and boiling at 250-251° C. (60 mm.). It is easily soluble in hot alcohol, ether and carbon bisulphide. On oxidation with chromic acid it forms a quinone, C15H8O2, and an α-diphenylene ketocarboxylic acid The picrate melts at 182-183° C.
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)