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DZUNGARIA, Dsongaria, or Jungaria, a former Mongolian kingdom of Central Asia, raised to its highest pitch by Kaldan or Bushtu Khan in the latter half of the 17th century, but completely destroyed by Chinese invasion about 1757-1759. It has played an important part in the history of Mongolia and the great migrations of Mongolian stems westward. Now its territory belongs partly to the Chinese empire (east Turkestan and north-western Mongolia) and partly to Russian Turkestan (provinces of Semiryechensk and Semipalatinsk). It derived its name from the Dsongars, or Songars, who were so called because they formed the left wing (dson, left; gar, hand) of the Mongolian army. Its widest limit included Kashgar, Yarkand, Khotan, the whole region of the T'ien Shan, or Tian-shan, Mountains, and in short the greater proportion of that part of Central Asia which extends from 35° to 50° N. and from 72° to 97° E. The name, however, is more properly applied only to the present Chinese province of T'ien Shan-pei-lu and the country watered by the Ili. As a political or geographical term it has practically disappeared from the map; but the range of mountains stretching north-east along the southern frontier of the Land of the Seven Streams, as the district to the south-east of the Balkhash Lake is called, preserves the name of Dzungarian Range.

Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)

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