CHUQUISACA, a department of S.E. Bolivia, bounded N. by Cochabamba and Santa Cruz, E. by Santa Cruz and Brazil, S. by Tarija, and W. by Potosi. It lies partly upon the eastern plateau of Bolivia and partly upon the great plains of the upper La Plata basin; area, 26,418 sq. m. The Pilcomayo, a large tributary of the Paraguay, crosses N.W. to S.E. the western part of the department. The climate of the lowlands is hot, humid and unhealthy, but that of the plateau is salubrious, though subject to greater extremes in temperature and rainfall. The seasons are sharply divided into wet and dry, the eastern plains becoming great lagoons during the wet season, and parched deserts during the dry. The mineral resources are important, but are less developed than those of Potosi and Oruro. Grazing is the principal industry of the plains, and cattle, sheep, goats and llamas are raised and cereals grown in the fertile valleys of the plateau. Three rough highways connect the department with its neighbours on the N. and W., and pack animals are the common means of transporting merchandise. The population was estimated at 204,434 m 1900, and is largely composed of Indians and mestizos. The plateau Indians are generally Aymaras, but on the eastern plains there are considerable settlements of partly civilized Chiriguanos, of Guarani origin. The department is divided into four provinces, the greater part of the lowlands being unsettled and without effective political organization. Its principal towns are Sucré, Camargo, Padilla and Yotala.
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)