CEOS , an island in the Aegean Sea, belonging to the group of the Cyclades and the eparchy of Syra, 14 m. off the coast of Attica. Its greatest length is about 15 m. and its breadth about 8 m. It rises gradually towards the centre, where it culminates in Mount Elias, 1864 ft. high. Among its natural productions are lemons, citrons, olives, wine and honey; it also exports a considerable quantity of valonia. There were formerly four towns of some importance in the island: - Iulis, about 3 m. from the north-west shore; Coressia, the harbour of Iulis, with a temple of Apollo Smintheus in the neighbourhood; Carthaea, in the south-east, with a temple of Apollo; and Poieëssa, in the south-west. Of these Iulis is represented by the town of Zea, and Carthaea by the village of 'S tais Polais; traces of the other two can still be made out. Iulis was the birthplace of the lyric poets Simonides and Bacchylides, the philosophers Prodicus and Ariston, and the physician Erasistratus; the excellence of its laws was so generally recognized that the title of Cean Laws passed into a proverb. One of them forbade a citizen to protract his life beyond sixty years. The people of Ceos fought on the Greek side at Artemisium and Salamis; they joined the Delian League and also the later Athenian alliance in 377 b.c. They revolted in 363-362, but were reduced again, and the Athenians established a monopoly of the ruddle, or red earth, which was one of the most valuable products of the island. In a.d. 1207 it was divided between four Italian adventurers; after forming part of the duchy of Naxos in 1537, it passed under Turkish rule in 1566. Silver coins of Carthaea and Coressia have been found dating from the 6th century b.c. (see Numismatics: Greek, "Cyclades and Sporades"). The present population of the island is about 4000, of which the capital has about 2000.
See Pridik, De Cei Insulae rebus (1892).
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)