CALDER, an ancient district of Midlothian, Scotland. It has been divided into the parishes of Mid-Calder (pop. in 1901 3132) and West-Calder (pop. 8092), East-Calder belonging to the parish of Kirknewton (pop. 3221). The whole locality owes much of its commercial importance and prosperity to the enormous development of the mineral oil industry. Coal-mining is also extensively pursued, sandstone and limestone are worked, and paper-mills flourish. Mid-Calder, a town on the Almond (pop. 703), has an ancient church, and John Spottiswood (1510-1585), the Scottish reformer, was for many years minister. His sons - John, archbishop of St Andrews, and James (1567-1645), bishop of Clogher - were both born at Mid-Calder. West-Calder is situated on Breich Water, an affluent of the Almond, 15 m. S.W. of Edinburgh by the Caledonian railway, and is the chief centre of the district. Pop. (1901) 2652. At Addiewell, about 1 m. S.W., the manufacture of ammonia, naphtha, paraffin oil and candles is carried on, the village practically dating from 1866, and having in 1901 a population of 1591. The Highland and Agricultural Society have an experimental farm at Pumpherston (pop. 1462). The district contains several tumuli, old ruined castles and a Roman camp in fair preservation.
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)