ANTIOCHUS, the name of thirteen kings of the Seleucid dynasty in Nearer Asia. The most famous are Antiochus III. the Great (223-187 B.C.) who sheltered Hannibal and waged war with Rome, and his son Antiochus IV. Epiphanes (176-164 B.C.) who tried to suppress Judaism by persecution (see Seleucid Dynasty).
The name was subsequently borne by the kings of Commagene (69 B.C.-A.D. 72), whose house was affiliated to the Seleucid.
Antiochus I. of Commagene, who without sufficient reason has been identified with the Seleucid Antiochus XIII. Asiaticus, made peace on advantageous terms with Pompey in 64 B.C. Subsequently he fought on Pompey's side in the Civil War, and later still repelled an attack on Samosata by Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony.) He died before 31 B.C. and was succeeded by one Mithradates I. This Mithradates was succeeded by an Antiochus II., who was executed by Augustus in 29 B.C. After another Mithradates we know of an Antiochus III., on whose death in A.D. 17 Commagene became a Roman province. In 38 his son Antiochus IV. Epiphanes was made king by Caligula, who deposed him almost immediately. Restored by Claudius in 41, he reigned until 72 as an ally of Rome against Parthia. In that year he was deposed on suspicion of treason and retired to Rome. Several of his coins are extant.
On all the above see "Antiochos" in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, i. part ii. (1894).
Note - this article incorporates content from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, (1910-1911)