ANCACHS, a coast province of central Peru, lying between the departments of Lima and Libertad, and W. of the Maranon river. Area, 16,562 sq. m.; pop. (1896) 428,703. The department was created in 1835, and received its present name in 1839, and its last accession of territory in 1861. Lying partly on the arid coast, partly in the high Cordilleras and partly in the valley of the Maranon, it has every variety of climate and productions. Rice, cotton, sugar-cane, yucas (Manihot aipi) and tropical fruits are produced in the irrigated valleys of the coast, and wheat, Indian corn, barley, potatoes, coffee, coca, etc., in the upland regions. Cattle and sheep are also raised for the coast markets. Mining is likewise an important industry. The capital, Huaraz (est. pop. 8000 in 1896), on the Rio Santa or Huaraz, is a large mining centre in the sierras, 9931 ft. above sea-level, from which a railway runs to the small seaports of Santa and Chimbote, 172 m. distant. Other noteworthy towns are Caraz (6000) and Carhuaz (5000) in the sierra region, and Huarmey (1500) on the coast.